If you’re going to drink, make it part of your Mediterranean diet

The British government’s new guidelines advise reducing alcohol consumption to 14 units a week for both men and women and bluntly state that, for some cancers of the mouth, throat and breast, “risk increases with any amount you drink”.

It’s not just what you drink, but the way that you drink it. merc67/shutterstock.com

celine handbags The British government’s new guidelines advise reducing alcohol consumption to 14 units a week for both men and women and bluntly state that, for some cancers of the mouth, throat and breast, “risk increases with any amount you drink”. The message is clear: for the good of our health, the government would rather we not drink at all.

canada goose So what about the many millions of people of the Mediterranean, whose diet is one of the healthiest in the world and which includes a drink or two as an integral part? The answer may lie not just in the amount of alcohol consumed, as the UK government’s guidelines would have it, but the manner in which it is drunk and what it is drunk with.

There is now good evidence that many foods in the Mediterranean diet including vegetables, pulses, whole grains and olive oil contain protective substances that help counter alcohol’s harmful effects.

For example, a number of studies suggest that even low amounts of alcohol increase the risk of breast cancer. But a recent trial, part of the highly regarded Predimed Study, found that women who ate a Mediterranean diet had a reduced risk of breast cancer, even though almost half were drinking up to two units of alcohol (a 175ml glass of wine) a day.

celine bags The extra virgin olive oil in their diet was thought to have played a role. Alcohol increases breast cancer risk by raising oestrogen levels, but extra virgin olive oil contains various anti-oestrogens that block the carcinogenic actions of oestrogens. In another large European study involving 368,000 women, it was convincingly shown that folates – found in large quantities in the green, leafy vegetables and pulses of the Mediterranean diet – also provide a protective action against the effects of alcohol.

Although these are important findings, women with a family history of breast cancer are still advised to avoid drinking.

The link between mouth and throat cancers and low alcohol consumption, which the guidelines declare to hold true “for any amount you drink”, also deserves closer scrutiny. Again, the Mediterranean diet comes up trumps: even when low to moderate alcohol is consumed as part of the diet, the risk of these cancers decreases.

How we drink matters

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Food and wine: the ancient Greeks knew what they were doing.
Caravaggio/Uffizi Gallery

It’s well established that combining smoking with drinking dramatically increases the risk of causing mouth and throat cancers. Some studies such as the Million Women Study (which really did involve well over a million women) found no increased risk of these cancers for women drinking up to two units a day, so long as they were non-smokers. It’s thought that alcohol acts as a solvent that increases the absorption of carcinogens in cigarette smoke. If most drinking occurs during a meal, the hazards from smoking become less likely.

So it’s clear that the way we drink is very important. Drinking with food is the typical pattern in Mediterranean countries, whereas in the UK binge drinking is far more common – where alcohol is not just drunk excessively, but also without food. A full stomach of food slows the rate of alcohol absorption, limiting dangerous spikes in blood alcohol levels that are linked to high blood pressure and strokes. In Mediterranean countries, even alcohol consumed without a meal is usually accompanied with some food: a few olives with an ouzo in Greece, tapas or a piece of tortilla to accompany a beer in a Spanish bar. What a shame that so few pubs in the UK provide these protective mouthfuls.

A scoring system was developed to capture the Mediterranean way of drinking: moderate alcohol intake spread out over the week, a preference for red wine drunk with meals, little intake of spirits, and an avoidance of binge drinking. Scoring highly on these criteria correlated with significantly reduced mortality.

Of course there are many other benefits to a Mediterranean diet: it is the leading diet for risk reduction of cardiovascular disease, with many studies confirming the cardio-protective effects of moderate drinking, especially as part of a Mediterranean diet, and increasing evidence that links the Mediterranean diet with a decreased risk of dementia. Considering how few other options there are to counter this devastating disease, these are important findings.

Just as eating guidelines now recognise that diet must be considered as a whole, rather than isolating individual foods or nutrients such as sugar or saturated fat, there is good reason to apply the same thinking to weighing up the risks and benefits of drinking alcohol. Heavy drinking increases the risk of various cancers, of this there is no doubt – and even low alcohol consumption may do so with certain diets such as those high in processed foods. But the evidence suggests that one or two glasses of wine, so long as they are accompanied by a tasty Mediterranean meal, won’t hurt you – whatever the government guidelines say.

Richard Hoffman does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

We can avoid weight creep – here’s how

Many of us enter a new year reflecting on where we have been and our plans for the future. For some, this will mean acknowledging that a couple more kilos have crept on over the past year.

Walking briskly for at least 30 minutes on most days of the week is a good start. etorres/Shutterstock

celine handbags canada goose Many of us enter a new year reflecting on where we have been and our plans for the future. For some, this will mean acknowledging that a couple more kilos have crept on over the past year. Others will have health on their hit list for 2016; resolving to eat better and lose weight could be part of that.

canada goose It can be difficult to lose weight and keep it off in the long term. So how can we support communities to avoid weight gain over time?

New research published today in PLOS Medicine suggests that simple lifestyle programs can help prevent weight gain. But GPs, communities and individuals also have a role to play.

It’s OK to aim low

Even a small weight loss can result in positive health impacts. It has been estimated that a 1% reduction in body mass index (BMI) – the equivalent to approximately 1kg for an average adult – across the United States population would avoid 2 million cases of diabetes, 1.5 million cardiovascular diseases, and more than 73,000 cases of cancer.

It is the norm to be overweight or obese in Australia. Figures released last month showed 63% of adults (71% men, 56% women) and 27% of children were in this category in 2014/15. Further, rates of obesity in women in Australasia are growing faster than anywhere else in the world.

Challenging the accepted dogma that we will gain weight as we age was put to a recent meeting of the Queensland Clinical Senate, which helps set the agenda for long-term health strategies. The resolution of the meeting, convened with Health Consumers Queensland, was to focus on preventing weight gain in the community, rather than weight loss, particularly given the problems faced in achieving the latter.

Lifestyle programs

In today’s study, the researchers randomly assigned 649 women in 41 rural Australian towns to either the intervention group or the control group.

Women in the intervention group took part in information sessions, received a personalised self-management plan, were sent monthly text message reminders and undertook a 20-minute phone-based coaching session.

Women in the control group attended a general session on women’s health.

Over 12 months, the women in the towns who received the targeted intervention program lost almost half a kilogram, while those in the control towns gained almost half a kilo.

This shows that delivering programs with community integration, a focus on small changes in behaviour, self-management, and minimal burden on the participants using a mix of personal and electronic modes of delivery, can be feasible, cheap and effective.

Role of GPs

General and nurse practitioners play an important role in providing advice and strategies on healthy and active lifestyles to prevent and manage obesity.

However, a Monash University study, published in The Medical Journal of Australia, found GPs recorded the weight of only 25.8% of a sample of 270,426 patients. Some of the barriers for recording this information are difficulty in approaching the discussion and a perceived lack of available training.

It is important for governments to support all health-care providers to be able to raise the issue of weight control – not just with those who are overweight or obese, but also to encourage those who are a healthy weight to remain in that category.

Guidelines for health professionals already exist, however, better integration with community programs (particularly those which offer social benefits), referral to tailored services and alignment with mass media campaigns are likely to add enormous value at relatively low cost.

There is no single strategy that will address excess weight and obesity in our community. But health professionals are important influencers. Empowering this group with effective, low-intensity strategies and programs is one element of a comprehensive approach to address poor diets and weight issues.

Community response

Another key element is to support communities to create healthy environments, to make the healthy choice the easy choice. Schools, workplaces, sports and community centres are all environments that should support healthy eating and active lifestyles.

If communities are funded and empowered, such as through the OPAL (Obesity prevention and lifestyle) program in South Australia and Healthy Together Victoria, they can link into statewide programs but also develop local solutions to solve the unique issues that exist in their catchment.

Recently we saw the funding removed from the National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health, which provided valuable investment for the implementation of policies and programs to support healthy lifestyles. Funding to support community based initiatives so local populations can engage this issue is critically important, along with the implementation of policies such as reducing junk food marketing to children, mandatory health star labels and taxing sugary drinks.

Individual action

In the meantime, how can individuals who regularly pledge to get fit and lose weight make sustainable and significant healthy changes, as the women in today’s rural Australia study have done?

celine bags Aiming to avoid weight gain is a good starting point, followed by small lifestyle changes, such as:

  • reducing serving sizes
  • aiming for two serves of fruit and five serves of vegetables a day
  • reducing sugary drinks
  • walking briskly for at least 30 minutes on most days of the week.

These changes can make a big difference to your risk of weight gain and developing serious health problems in the future.

Jane Martin does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

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Today rates of allergic, autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases are rising dramatically in Western societies. If that weren’t bad enough, we are beginning to understand that many psychiatric disorders, including depression, migraine headaches and anxiety disorders, are associated with inflammation.

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Four common myths about exercise and weight loss

It’s that time of year when many are trying, and some are failing, to live up to their New Years’ resolution of losing weight.

Exercise isn’t the best way to lose weight, in fact it’s one of the hardest. Nottingham Trent University/Flickr, CC BY-SA

It’s that time of year when many are trying, and some are failing, to live up to their New Years’ resolution of losing weight. Many of these probably include resolutions to be more physically active in striving for this goal. But first, there are some common misconceptions about exercise and weight loss that need to be addressed.

Myth 1. Exercise is the best way to lose weight

While there is plenty of evidence showing people can lose weight just by being physically active, it is also one of the hardest ways to go about it.

Our energy balance is mostly determined by what we eat and our metabolic rate (the energy you burn when you do nothing). Our energy balance is determined only to a small extent by how active we are. That means losing weight just by being active is very hard work.

The American College of Sports Medicine recommends accumulating 250 to 300 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per week for weight loss. That is twice the amount of physical activity recommended for good health (30 minutes on most days), and most Australians don’t even manage that.

The best way to lose weight is through combining a nutritious, low-calorie diet with regular physical activity.

Just exercising is an extremely difficult way to shed kilos.
Nina Hale/Flickr, CC BY

Myth 2. You can’t be fat and fit

Inactive people of healthy weight may look OK, but this isn’t necessarily the case. When you’re not active you have a higher risk of heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, some cancers, depression and anxiety. Several studies have demonstrated the association between premature death and being overweight or obese disappears when fitness is taken into account (although another study disputed this).

This means you can still be metabolically healthy while being overweight, but only if you’re regularly active. Of course, people who are fit and of normal weight have the best health outcomes, so there are still plenty of reasons to try to shed some weight.

Myth 3. No pain, no gain

Or in other words, “no suffering, no weight loss”. As mentioned earlier, if you want to lose weight by being active, you will need to do a lot of it. But while physical activity of a moderate intensity is recommended, guidelines do not say activity needs to be of vigorous intensity.

Moderate intensity physical activity makes you breathe harder and may make it more difficult to talk, but you should still be able to carry on a conversation (such as brisk walking, riding a bicycle at a moderate pace). This is unlike vigorous physical activity, which will make you completely out of breath and will make you sweat profusely regardless of the weather conditions (such as running).

Moderate intensity physical activity is not painful and does not include excessive suffering to meet your goals. A study of weight loss in groups with higher intensity and lower volumes of activity compared to groups of lower intensity and higher volumes of activity did not find significant differences.

Myth 4. Only resistance training will help you lose weight

Resistance or strength training is good for you for several reasons. It increases functional capacity (the ability to perform tasks safely and independently) and lean body mass, and prevents falls and osteoporosis. But the main idea for promoting it to lose weight is that muscle mass needs more energy than fat mass, even when at rest. Therefore the more muscular you are, the higher your metabolic rate, which makes it easier to expend the energy you’re taking on board.

However, building muscle mass takes a serious effort, and you need to keep doing resistance training or significant loss of muscle mass will occur within weeks.

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Not everyone enjoys weight lifting, so do what you prefer.
Sherri Abendroth/Flickr, CC BY

More importantly though, aerobic or endurance training is also good to help you lose weight. In fact, a recent study demonstrated that endurance training was more effective in producing weight loss compared to resistance training. It’s also likely many people will get more enjoyment out of a brisk walk than a session of weight-lifting, so the most important thing is to pick an exercise routine you enjoy and thus will actually stick to.

To help you get started on your journey to a more active and potentially leaner lifestyle, you can sign up for free physical activity programs such as www.10000steps.org.au. If you want to take part in our web-based physical activity research study, you can register your interest here.

Corneel Vandelanotte receives funding from Queensland Health (for maintaining the 10,000 Steps Australia program), the National Health and Medical Research Council (project funding) and the National Heart Foundation of Australia (salary support).

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

John Wick: Chapter 2(2017)

Over the last few decades, medicine has witnessed a sea change in attitudes toward chronic pain, and particularly toward opioids. While these changes were intended to bring relief to many, they have also fed an epidemic of prescription opioid and heroin abuse.

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Why isn’t learning about public health a larger part of becoming a doctor?

Chronic conditions, such as Type II diabetes and hypertension, account for seven in 10 deaths in the United States each year. And by some estimates, public health factors, such as the physical environment we live in, socioeconomic status and ability to access health services, determine 90% of our health.

Public health isn’t a standard part of medical school curricula. Medical school class images via www.shutterstock.com.

Chronic conditions, such as Type II diabetes and hypertension, account for seven in 10 deaths in the United States each year. And by some estimates, public health factors, such as the physical environment we live in, socioeconomic status and ability to access health services, determine 90% of our health. Biomedical sciences and actual medical care – the stuff doctors do – determine the remaining 10%.

Clinical medicine can treat patients when they are sick, but public health provides an opportunity to prevent disease and poor health. But too often, medical students don’t get to learn about public health, or how to use it when they become doctors. That means many of today’s students aren’t learning about health care in a broader context.

Why doctors need to know about public health

What should a physician do if patients are unable to visit a physician because their workplace doesn’t give them sick days? What about an obese individual who has trouble following healthy eating recommendations because their neighborhood doesn’t have a grocery store?

If we want the next generation of medical professionals to understand why some patients have an easier time following a care plan than others, or understand what causes these conditions so we can prevent them, medical schools need to look toward public health.

Epidemiology, a core discipline within public health, emphasizes the study and application of treatment to disease and other health-related issues within a population. It is focused on prevention, which means understanding what makes people sick or unwell.

You might hear about epidemiologists who work on figuring out how infectious diseases spread. But they also study obesity, cancer, how our environments affect our health and more.

So a doctor with training in public health would have an understanding of how environmental, social and behavioral factors impact their patients’ health. These physicians might also draw on other medical professionals to treat individuals who are sick, and prevent sickness from occurring in the first place.Watch Full Movie Online Streaming Online and Download

Medical schools recognize that their students should learn more about public health. But according to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), about one-fourth of 2015 medical school graduates report that they intend to participate in public health-related activities during their career, and nearly one-third of graduates report that training related to community health and social service agencies was inadequate.

Putting public health into medicine

But this is slowly starting to change.

For instance, the Medical College Acceptance Test (MCAT), which all medical school applicants in the US take, used to focus on just physical and biological sciences and verbal reasoning. But in 2014 the MCAT added a new section on the psychological, social and biological foundations of behavior. The idea is to provide students with a foundation learn about what public health scholars call the social determinants of health. These are conditions and environments in which we are born, work, live and interact with others.

Students are expected to know more about public health.
Medical students image via www.shutterstock.com.

Expectations for students transitioning from medical school to their postgraduate residency are also starting to change.

The AAMC has a list of 13 activities that medical school graduates are expected to be able to do on their first day of residency. The activities (called Entrustable Professional Activities, or EPAs) integrate, among other core competencies, principles of public health into everyday practice. They include guidelines for working with individuals who have different belief systems, patient-centered practice and understanding how to access and use information about the needs individuals have and the community resource available to them.

Having students make house calls

At the University of Florida, where I teach, population health-based topics are integrated into our medical school curriculum, and also into curricula for other health professions.

Each fall, 700 first-year health science students studying everything from dentistry to clinical psychology, health administration, pharmacy, nursing and more take part in a service learning project with local families.

Students complete coursework about public health, but they are also assigned to work with a family through the year. Students make a series of home visits, which means that they can see, firsthand, how the family’s home environment shapes their health. Because the project includes students from all the health professions, it helps them understand each other’s roles and responsibilities in providing care.

In these visits, students get a chance to see the myriad factors that can make it easier or harder for a patient to follow the care plan their doctor prescribes. Students may learn that their patients have priorities in life that come before monitoring their own health. And for many students, this may be the only home visit that they make during their entire career.

For instance, a team of our students were humbled to learn that one of the patients they visited, a woman with severe hypertension and Type II diabetes, put her desire to provide Christmas presents for the six grandchildren she was raising over her medication adherence or her glucose monitoring. She was more focused on her grandchildren than spending time on monitoring her health and taking medications.

These home visits show students how complex their patients’ lives really are. And that give these future doctors a perspective on their patients that they may never get in a clinical visit.

Other medical schools putting public health on the agenda

The University of Florida isn’t the only medical school investing time and energy to explore new methods to teach students about public health.

Some are adopting dual-degree models that allow medical students to earn degrees in both public health and medicine. Often, these programs extend students’ training by 12 months, but some institutions, like the University of Miami and the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, have developed four-year dual-degree programs.

Other institutions, such as the University of Illinois and Florida International University, are integrating population and public health perspectives throughout their curricula, to make sure that all students learn about public health.

Erik Black does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

Five key findings from 15 years of the International Space Station

The International Space Station is the longest-running continuously inhabited human outpost in space – this year it celebrated its 15th anniversary. As the ISS orbits the Earth it is essentially in a state of free fall, counteracting the Earth’s gravity and providing an ideal platform for science in space.

NASA/wikimedia

The International Space Station is the longest-running continuously inhabited human outpost in space – this year it celebrated its 15th anniversary. As the ISS orbits the Earth it is essentially in a state of free fall, counteracting the Earth’s gravity and providing an ideal platform for science in space.

Science aboard the ISS is decidedly cross-disciplinary, including fields as diverse as microbiology, space science, fundamental physics, human biology, astronomy, meteorology and Earth observation to name a few. But let’s take a look at some of the biggest findings.

1. The fragility of the human body

The effects of the space environment on the human body during long duration spaceflight are of significant interest if we want to one day venture far beyond the Earth. A crewed journey to Mars, for example, may take a year, and the same time again for the return leg.

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Astronaut Frank De Winne.
NASA/wikimedia

Microgravity research on the ISS has demonstrated that the human body would lose considerable bone and muscle mass on such a mission. Mitigation technology, involving the use of resistive exercise devices, has shown that it is possible to substantially alleviate bone and muscle loss. Coupled with other studies into appropriate nutrition and drug use, these investigations may lead to improvements in the treatment of osteoporosis, a condition affecting millions of people across the globe.

2. Interplanetary contamination

A long-term goal of many space agencies is to fly humans to Mars. The red planet is of particular interest because it is one of the most accessible locations in which past or present extraterrestrial life may exist. It is imperative, therefore, that we do not inadvertently contaminate Mars with terrestrial organisms. Likewise, we must be careful not to back-contaminate Earth with any possible Martian life forms during a sample return mission.

Tough fellow: Bacillus subtilis.
Allonweiner/wikimedia

Certain hardy bacterial spores, such as the Bacillus subtilis in the picture were exposed to space aboard the ISS, but shielded from solar UV-radiation, and demonstrated a high survival rate. The space vacuum and temperature extremes alone were not enough to kill them off. These remarkable bugs could be capable of surviving an interplanetary space flight to Mars and live there, under a thin layer of soil, were they to be accidentally deposited by a spacecraft.

This finding has huge implications; if microorganisms, or their DNA, can survive interplanetary spaceflight, albeit by natural means, it leaves open the possibility that life on Earth may originally have arrived from Mars, or elsewhere .

3. Growing crystals for medicine

A key challenge in developing effective medicines is understanding the shape of protein molecules in the human body. Proteins are responsible for a huge range of biological functions, including DNA replication and digestion – and protein crystallography is an essential tool for understanding protein structure. Crystal growth within a fluid on Earth is somewhat inhibited by gravity-driven convection and the settling out of denser particles at the bottom of the fluid vessel.

Crystals in a microgravity environment may be grown to much larger sizes than on Earth, enabling easier analysis of their micro-structure. Protein crystals grown on the ISS are being used in the development of new drugs for diseases such as muscular dystrophy and cancer.

4. Cosmic rays and dark matter

Space is permeated by a constant flux of energetic charged particles called cosmic rays. When cosmic rays encounter the Earth’s atmosphere they disintegrate, producing a shower of secondary particles which can be detected at ground level. Some cosmic rays may emanate from explosive events such as supernovae or, closer to home, flares on our own sun. But in many cases their source is unknown.

In order to better understand these enigmatic particles, we need to catch them before they reach the atmosphere. Mounted on the ISS is the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), the most sensitive particle detector ever launched into space. This device collects cosmic rays and measures both their energy and incoming direction.

In 2013, early results showed that cosmic ray electrons and their anti-matter counterparts, positrons, emanated from all directions in space, rather than from specific locations.

Approximately one quarter of the mass-energy of the universe is believed to be comprised of dark matter, a substance of unknown composition, which may be a source of cosmic rays. The theorised presence of dark matter envisages a halo of the material surrounding the Milky Way (and other galaxies), and is thus supported by the isotropic nature of the cosmic ray electrons and positrons detected by AMS, essentially coming at us from all directions in space.

It has never been detected directly and it’s true nature is one of the greatest unanswered questions in modern astrophysics.

5. Efficient combustion

Deliberately starting a fire on an orbital space station does not sound, initially, like a good idea. It turns out, however, that the physics of flames in microgravity is quite interesting. The flame extinguishment study is an understandably carefully designed facility whereby tiny droplets of fuel, which form into spheres under microgravity, are ignited.

Flames on Earth assume their familiar shape because gravity-driven convection results in an updraught of air, drawing the burning mixture of fuel and gas upwards. In microgravity there is no updraught and so a flame assumes a diffuse spherical shape around the combustion source. Further, the yellow colour of a flame is produced by the incandescence of tiny soot particles. Soot forms from incomplete burning of the fuel and is a pollutant.

In microgravity, the combustion of a fuel is more complete and hence more efficient. A candle flame that would appear yellow on Earth, actually burns with a blue colour in microgravity and produces much less smoke. This kind of research enables the study of soot formation processes which has negative impacts on the environment and human health, and how droplets of fuel in a combustion engine transition from a liquid to a gas as they burn. This may one day lead to more efficient designs for combustion engines on Earth.

Gareth Dorrian receives funding from the Natural Environment Research Council.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

When is an aspirin a day to prevent heart attacks too risky?

We’ve known for a long time that aspirin can help prevent damage from a heart attack or a stroke if taken during one of those events.

What’s the harm? Aspirin via www.shutterstock.com.

We’ve known for a long time that aspirin can help prevent damage from a heart attack or a stroke if taken during one of those events. In fact, you might have seen ads about how aspirin can be lifesaving during a heart attack.

Research backs that up. For people who have already experienced a heart attack or stroke, a daily aspirin regimen can actually prevent future heart attacks and strokes.

But, as helpful as aspirin is to prevent recurrent heart attacks or strokes (this is called secondary prevention), a daily aspirin has long been controversial to prevent a first heart attack or stroke (this is called primary prevention).

To use aspirin for primary prevention, doctors are supposed to assess a patient’s risk of a first heart attack or stroke and decide when benefits of aspirin outweigh risks. But new draft guidelines for aspirin use have created confusion about who, exactly, should actually take aspirin.

What do the new draft guidelines say about aspirin?

The new draft guidelines from the United States Preventative Services Task Force recommend adults between the ages of 50-59 take aspirin if they have at least a 10% 10-year risk of having a heart attack or stroke as measured by a risk calculator .

For people 60-69, the task force says there is less benefit compared to for those ages 50-59, but that aspirin should still be used as long as there is a low risk of bleeding as a side effect.

But for patients younger than 50 or older than 70, the task force decided there was not enough evidence to make a recommendation about using aspirin. This is a major departure from the 2009 recommendation, which suggested use in all adults between the ages of 45-79 with an elevated risk of a heart attack or stroke.

This change happened in part because of a push to make medical guidelines strictly evidence-based. Right now, there are no randomized trials comparing aspirin to placebo in adults older than 70 or younger than 50. Without evidence, you can’t have evidence-based recommendations.

Basing guidelines strictly on evidence makes sense, but clinical trials are rarely perfect, and recommendations on how to use drugs need to make sense to primary care providers in order to avoid confusion.

What do the data say about aspirin for primary prevention?

Early trials that treated patients with aspirin during a heart attack or stroke found they were more likely to survive. But these trials also found that leaving patients on aspirin for months and years afterwards reduced future heart attacks and strokes.

For every 100 patients who’ve had a heart attack or stroke and stay on a daily aspirin, five recurrent heart attacks or strokes are prevented in the next year. While there is a small risk of serious bleeding with aspirin (mostly stomach bleeding, but also bleeding in the brain), fewer than one in 100 patients experience this. Therefore, everyone agrees that the benefits of aspirin outweigh the risks for people who have had a heart attack or stroke.

But for patients with no history of a heart attack or stroke, the data say that the risk of serious bleeds and the benefit of reducing heart attacks and strokes are about equal for a population of middle-aged and older adults.

According to the new calculations in the task force guidelines, for every 100 men 55-60 years old with an average risk of a first heart attack or stroke of 1% per year, starting a daily aspirin would have a lifetime effect of avoiding about two heart attacks and one stroke among those 100 men, but causing about three serious stomach bleeds and about one hemorrhagic stroke.

What do the new guidelines mean for you?

The draft guidelines from the Preventative Services Task Force might not offer a lot of clear yes’s and no’s about who should and shouldn’t take aspirin for primary prevention. And guidelines from other groups offer differing advice.Watch Full Movie Online Streaming Online and Download

Guidelines from The American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology and American Diabetes Association all endorse aspirin for primary prevention in certain higher-risk patients. However, the Food and Drug Administration denied a petition from the aspirin manufacturer Bayer Inc for wording on their label that said aspirin could prevent heart attacks and strokes for people who had never had them.

And the European Society of Cardiology does not endorse aspirin for primary prevention for any patient – even those at high risk.

But, the “over-the-counter” availability of aspirin means that Americans, many Europeans and potential patients all over the world can decide for themselves whether or not to take aspirin. And many are deciding to do so. A national survey that we published in 2015 showed that nearly half of all US adults without CVD indicated that they “regularly” used aspirin as a preventive therapy.

So what should patients do? If you are over the age of 40 and don’t have a history of cardiovascular disease, check your predicted 10-year risk of CVD.

If your individual risk is greater than 10%, talk to your doctor about taking aspirin. Patients who don’t have a risk of bleeding could be considered good candidates for therapy, but they should understand that the odds of a serious bleed are about the same as the odds of preventing a heart attack or stroke. Not all patients will want to take the trade-off.

For patients who are under 70 with a CVD risk of less than 10%, aspirin therapy should generally be avoided.

While it is widely believed that these new task force recommendations will cut down on how many people go on an aspirin regimen in the US, that remains to be seen. It depends whether busy primary care providers read and agree with the guidelines, and then translate them into clinical practice.

Craig Williams does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

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It has been almost 35 years since the world was introduced to the term AIDS. In the 1980s, researchers and physicians were trying to understand what was causing waves of strange infections and discovered it was a new virus called the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV.

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Genre : Comedy, Romance.

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The UK has been given first place in the Economist Intelligence Unit’s (EIU) 2015 Quality of Death Index, which ranks palliative care across the world.

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Director : Chad Stahelski.
Producer : Basil Iwanyk.
Release : February 8, 2017
Country : United States of America.
Production Company : Thunder Road Pictures, LionsGate, 87Eleven.
Language : English, Italiano.
Runtime : 122
Genre : Thriller, Action, Crime.

Movie ‘John Wick: Chapter 2’ was released in February 8, 2017 in genre Thriller. Chad Stahelski was directed this movie and starring by Keanu Reeves. This movie tell story about John Wick is forced out of retirement by a former associate looking to seize control of a shadowy international assassins’ guild. Bound by a blood oath to aid him, Wick travels to Rome and does battle against some of the world’s most dangerous killers.

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After five years of negotiations, a deal has finally been reached on the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP). But details are sketchy and the final text may not see daylight for several weeks, as it undergoes what’s quaintly referred to as “legal scrub” – the painstaking dotting of the i’s and crossing of the t’s by each of the participating countries’ lawyers.

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Director : Jordan Vogt-Roberts.
Producer : Thomas Tull, Jon Jashni, Mary Parent, Alex Garcia.
Release : March 8, 2017
Country : United States of America.
Production Company : Warner Bros., Legendary Entertainment.
Language : English.
Runtime : 118 min.
Genre : Science Fiction, Action, Adventure, Fantasy.

‘Kong: Skull Island’ is a movie genre Science Fiction, was released in March 8, 2017. Jordan Vogt-Roberts was directed this movie and starring by Tom Hiddleston. This movie tell story about Explore the mysterious and dangerous home of the king of the apes as a team of explorers ventures deep inside the treacherous, primordial island.

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New research shows how to trap cancer by turning your body against the tumour

Cancer happens when cells in the body start growing uncontrollably. But what if the tissue surrounding a tumour could be enlisted to stop the cancer spreading? New research gives the first evidence of how this might be possible by treating mice with a new drug that made cancer cells less likely to grow in other parts of the body.

www.shutterstock.com

Cancer happens when cells in the body start growing uncontrollably. But what if the tissue surrounding a tumour could be enlisted to stop the cancer spreading? New research gives the first evidence of how this might be possible by treating mice with a new drug that made cancer cells less likely to grow in other parts of the body.

Many cancer researchers believe that targeting the spread of cancer to other organs, otherwise known as metastasis, holds the key to successfully treating the disease because metastasis is the cause of death for 90% of those who die of cancer.

In the past, many treatments aimed at preventing metastasis have been targeted at tumour cells themselves, for example with chemotherapy, which can have severe side effects. This approach can show some success but after a while the tumour cells can become resistant to the treatment and the cancer then spreads.

Welcome environment

Recent research has also shown that the cells and proteins that surround a tumour play an important role in determining how it behaves. As a tumour develops, it sends out messages to surrounding cells, recruiting their help in creating a micro-environment with suitable conditions for the cancer to spread. These cells can then communicate with the tumour cells to encourage them to grow.

A large proportion of the cells found in the tumour micro-environment are cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). In normal tissue, fibroblasts help to build the protein scaffolding or “matrix” that gives our organs their shape and helps heal wounds. However in cancer, fibroblasts are co-opted into re-sculpting and stiffening the surrounding matrix. This helps the tumour to grow larger by encouraging cells to divide and allows cancer cells to escape into the bloodstream from where they can then spread to other parts of the body.

The new study, by researchers at the Francis Crick Institute and published in EMBO Reports, found that when CAFs were grown in low-oxygen conditions they no longer attempted to change the structure of the surrounding scaffolding and started behaving more like normal fibroblasts again. The matrix remained flexible and, crucially, tumour cells were then unable to spread through it. The research provides the first clues of how we could target this process and help bring the cancer-associated fibroblast cells back on side against the cancer.J. Cole: 4 Your Eyez Only streaming

This doesn’t look like cheese.
www.shutterstock.com

Further experiments found that the CAFs’ change in behaviour was caused by a protein that is involved in sensing the amount of oxygen available to the cells. The team then used a drug in the mice with cancer that fools this oxygen sensor into behaving as if there is no oxygen present. They found that the cancer was then less likely to spread in those mice that had been treated with the drug than in those that hadn’t.

Promising approach

As the team involved in the study readily acknowledge, this approach is still very much in its infancy. However, it is an exciting development in the way we think about how cancer can be treated. One of the great challenges in cancer treatment is that tumour cells are genetically unstable and as a result can become resistant to chemotherapy. CAFs and other cells are more stable and so will hopefully be less likely to develop resistance to emerging treatments if the findings of the research fulfil their promise.

As our understanding of the complex relationship between cancer and our bodies evolves, we will find new ways to target and combat the disease. It is very likely that the chemotherapies of the future will exploit these interactions, providing hope for better, more effective treatments.

Sarah Allinson does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

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Mars garnered a bunch of headlines early this week, as NASA revealed it had discovered water on the red planet. And it’s likely to linger in the public mind a little longer as reviews of the latest sci-fi blockbuster based on the planet appear with the film’s national opening today.

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Runtime : 103 min.
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Stars : Matt Damon, Jing Tian, Willem Dafoe, Andy Lau, Pedro Pascal, Zhang Hanyu.

European mercenaries searching for black powder become embroiled in the defense of the Great Wall of China against a horde of monstrous creatures.

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Living longer, sicker lives? Make lifestyle changes to remain healthier in old age

Life expectancy across the world is growing, but the number of those extra years in which we’re healthy is not rising at the same rate.

Fighting fit. Exercise by Shutterstock

Life expectancy across the world is growing, but the number of those extra years in which we’re healthy is not rising at the same rate. This adds to the demographic time-bomb of a greater number of older people suffering from ill-health. Yet, according to the Global Burden of Disease study published in the Lancet, of the top ten health risks most are lifestyle-related and within our power to change.

Between 1990 and 2013, life expectancy in the UK increased by 6.2 years for men to 79.1 years, and by 4.4 years for women to 82.8 years. However, the amount of this gain expected to be lived in good health increased by only 4.7 years for men and 3.3 years for women.

While a similar improving trend was observed in most countries across the globe, in dozens of countries including Belarus, Belize, Gabon, Guyana, Paraguay, Syria and all of southern Sub-Saharan Africa, healthy life expectancy was lower in 2013 than in 1990. Interestingly, this is also the first time that improvements to healthy life expectancy in the developing world (5.4 years for men and 6.4 years for women) are greater than those in the developed world (3.9 years for men and 2.8 years for women).

Chronic disease and disability

A surprising fact is that, nowadays, fewer than 4% of people are completely free of any health problem, with more people living with chronic and under-reported illnesses. The number of years lived with disability have increased in almost every country, attributable to the growth of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer, back pain, mental health disorders, dementia, road injuries, HIV/AIDS and malaria. This has also increased the demand for care.

A comparison of years of life lost between regions of the UK, the EU15 group of countries, plus Australia, Canada, Norway and the US, shows that England’s worst affected region – the north-west (with north-east England close behind) – is similar to Scotland, Northern Ireland and the US. The East Midlands is the UK average, equivalent to France, Canada and Germany, while better-off regions such as the south-west, south-east and London are closer to Spain, Australia and Norway.

Rates of years of life lost (YLLs) for both sexes combined in the nine English regions, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, the EU15 countries, Australia, Canada, Norway and the US (2013).
Newton et alThe Lancet, CC BY

Factors within our control

We could live longer and healthier if we tackled the main health risks that affect us. Globally, the leading ten risks are smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, alcohol use, high cholesterol, kidney disease, low physical activity, diets low in fruits and vegetables and drug use. These are drawn from 79 biological, behavioural, environmental and occupational factors.

The list is similar in the UK, with smoking, high blood pressure, obesity at the top and low physical activity also ranking highly, comparable to Australasia, Ireland and the US. Among developed countries there is some variation: alcohol use is a bigger problem in Belgium, Denmark, Finland and South Korea, while smoking is less of a problem in Finland, Israel and Singapore, for example.

The same is true within the UK, where Wales scored worse in physical activity but better in blood pressure, or where drug use was a greater problem in the south-west, south-east and the east of England than elsewhere. As the chart below shows, of metabolic (biological), environmental, or behavioural (lifestyle) factors affecting health, it is lifestyle factors that carry the most weight.

Proportion of disability-adjusted life years lost in 2013 attributable to behavioural, environmental and metabolic risks and where they overlap (marked by ∩).
GBD 2013 Risk Factors Collaborators/The Lancet, CC BY

The future

We are now entering an era when fighting for funding to tackle a single disease in isolation is no longer effective. Health problems tend to cluster from childhood to adulthood and then around the end of life. They also share both biological and environmental risks.trailer film The Discovery

The main risk factors leading to chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, smoking and heavy alcohol consumption might result from family problems, social inequality or poverty, beliefs or customs of particular subcultures, selfish business models, bullying or violence, poor education (awareness), depressive mood and even the changeable weather.

Current prevention and interventions programmes and social and health policies aimed at reducing the leading risks might have limited effects. Instead, we should focus on the context and mechanism of actions of these risks. We, therefore, need to restructure human society in each country, with systematic examination and improvements in every aspect of human life including politics, the occupational (for example, more healthcare and less business; shorter working hours with lower unemployment rates), the built environment (including housing and neighbourhoods renewal, the transport system, etc), consistent culture, education and parenting, hobbies and so on. This is the grand challenge that faces us in the next decade.

Ivy Shiue (Scthiue) does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

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Australians may be living longer but lifestyle-related chronic diseases are now the leading cause of illness, death and disability. Nearly 40% of Australians aged 45 and over have two or more chronic diseases, such as arthritis, asthma, back problems, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart disease, diabetes and mental health conditions.

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Release : November 4, 2016
Country : Canada, United States of America.
Production Company : Splendid Film, Ambi Pictures, Tango Pictures, BondIt.
Language : English.
Runtime : 102 min.
Genre : Thriller, Science Fiction.

Movie ‘Rupture’ was released in November 4, 2016 in genre Thriller. Steven Shainberg was directed this movie and starring by Noomi Rapace. This movie tell story about A single mom tries to break free from a mysterious organization that has abducted her.

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When we understand how HIV replicates despite drug therapy, then we can stop it

The last two decades has seen great advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therapy can now be tailored to the patient, ensuring patients’ bodies can tolerate it and making the drugs extremely effective.

HIV-infected H9 T cell captured by a scanning electron micrograph NIAID, CC BY-NC

The last two decades has seen great advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therapy can now be tailored to the patient, ensuring patients’ bodies can tolerate it and making the drugs extremely effective.

Those diagnosed with HIV before the virus has caused significant damage to their immune system can now expect to live long and healthy lives, similar even to those of people without the infection. This is simply an amazing success story for modern medicine. So what’s stopping us from eradicating the virus altogether?

HIV infects white blood cells called CD4 T-lymphocytes, important immune cells that protect the body against infections and cancers. Without treatment, HIV makes new copies of itself within each infected cell – new viruses that then leave the CD4 cells and infect new cells, starting the process over again. Eventually the loss of CD4 cells and damage to the immune defences are so severe that disease develops.streaming ARQ

Treatment stops HIV production within the CD4 cells, preventing damage to the immune system and further progression of the disease. This works very well – provided the anti-HIV drugs are continuously present in the body. This means medication must be taken regularly and without missing doses for therapy to remain successful.

From left to right: a red blood cell, a platelet and a T-lymphocyte, pictured using a scanning electron micrograph.
NCI-Frederick

HIV is a stealthy opponent

A preferable solution would be to eradicate HIV and cure the infection once and for all. However current HIV therapy, while remarkably successful in stopping virus production, cannot cure the infection and must therefore be carried out throughout a patient’s life. For those who are diagnosed with HIV in their thirties, this currently means around 40 years of uninterrupted daily therapy.

We have long understood that during treatment the HIV virus hides inside the CD4 T-lymphocytes, by inserting, or “integrating”, its own genetic information into the DNA of the CD4 cells. The integrated virus is invisible to both drugs and immune defences, and as soon as therapy is interrupted it fuels new virus production.

Research, such as my recent study, shows that the integrated HIV “reservoir” in the CD4 cells doesn’t diminish during treatment – even over a period of 14 years.

Why is the HIV reservoir so stable, even when the virus isn’t replicating itself during therapy and any integrated virus is expected to die with the host CD4 cell when it dies naturally? Understanding this is key to finding a cure for HIV.

How does HIV survive therapy?

We are making progress. The mechanism is relatively simple: whenever something stimulates the CD4 cells to multiply, any integrated HIV will also be split across the new cells with the rest of the cell DNA, a sort of silent HIV growth that does not require the cells to actually produce and release new viruses. So whenever a CD4 cell multiplies to produce more cells, it copies itself and the HIV at the same time, automatically incorporating the HIV at the birth of the new cell.

My research provides more evidence for this view, by showing that the amount of integrated HIV in CD4 cells is not a product of active virus replication. Instead, it’s associated with the body’s natural immune response, which stimulates CD4 T-lymphocytes to multiply – carrying the virus with them.

Finding a cure

In recent years there have been serious efforts from academia and pharmaceutical companies to find a way to eradicate HIV infection. One strategy is to stimulate immune cells in such a way that they are better able to fight the virus. However this study’s findings cast doubts on this strategy: stimulating the immune system may simply cause CD4 T-lymphocytes to multiply, expanding the virus reservoir as they do so.

Other strategies appear more promising: they aim to gently stimulate CD4 cells in such a way that active HIV production is started, so that the virus is recognised by both the drugs and the body’s natural immune responses, or perhaps by infusion of antibodies, and is killed off. This “kick and kill” strategy is currently being tested both in the laboratory and in clinical trials, and initial results are encouraging.

HIV is a clever virus, and clever strategies will be required to eradicate it – but recent research findings offer hope that a HIV cure may one day be possible.

Anna Maria Geretti receives funding for the work described from the European AIDS Treatment Network (NEAT) and the British HIV Association (BHIVA). She is affiliated with the Governing Board and is Secretary of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS).

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

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You may have read stories about people who believe their lives were saved because of a routine screening for a disease such as cancer.

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Trolling our confirmation bias: one bite and we’re easily sucked in

Earlier in the year the world was finally treated to some good news from science: a report was published that claimed to show that eating chocolate could help you lose weight faster.

What? Eating chocolate doesn’t help lose weight? But I read it in the newspaper! anjuli_ayer/Flickr, CC BY-NC

Earlier in the year the world was finally treated to some good news from science: a report was published that claimed to show that eating chocolate could help you lose weight faster.

Although it all seemed too good to be true, the story was reported in news outlets around the world. Europe’s largest daily newspaper, Bild, ran it on the front page. It made TV news in Australia and the US, it landed on the Irish Examiner, The Times of India, and the Huffington Post in various languages.

But it was too good to be true. Or, if you’re an aficionado of the work of trolls, it was even better.

Last week science journalist John Bohannon revealed that the whole study was an elaborate prank, a piece of terrible science he and documentary film makers Peter Onneken and Diana Löbl – with general practitioner Gunter Frank and financial analyst Alex Droste-Haars – had set up to reveal the corruption at the heart of the “diet research-media complex”.

Terrible science

So what did they do? Bohannon and his team went through all the standard practices of science. But at every stage they chose methods they knew would lead not to truth, but to clickbaity headlines.

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Has the Daily Star gone coco?
Screenshot by author

To begin the study they recruited a tiny sample of 15 people willing to go on a diet for three weeks. They divided the sample into three groups: one followed a low carbohydrate diet; another followed that diet but also got a 42 gram bar of chocolate every day; and finally the control group were asked to make no changes to their regular diet.

Throughout the experiment the researchers measured the participants in 18 different ways, including their weight, cholesterol, sodium, blood protein levels, their sleep quality and their general well being.

And here’s their first trick. Measuring such a tiny sample in so many ways means you’re almost bound to find something vaguely reportable. As Bohannon explains it:

Think of the measurements as lottery tickets. Each one has a small chance of paying off in the form of a “significant” result that we can spin a story around and sell to the media. The more tickets you buy, the more likely you are to win. We didn’t know exactly what would pan out — the headline could have been that chocolate improves sleep or lowers blood pressure — but we knew our chances of getting at least one “statistically significant” result were pretty good.

And so then they submitted it for publication. But again, Bohannon chose the path that led away from truth, picking a journal from his extensive list of open access academic journals (more on this below). Although the journal, (International Archives of Medicine), looks somewhat like a real academic journal, there was no peer review. It was accepted within 24 hours, and published two weeks later.

But great publicity!

Practiced in the white magic of science journalism and familiar with the dark arts of science PR, Bohannon then whipped up a press release he knew would bait the world’s media.

Hmm, chocolate study?
Screenshot by author

The key, Bohannon stated, was to “exploit journalists’ incredible laziness” – to write the press release so that reporters had the story laid out on a plate for them, as it were. As he later wrote, he “felt a queazy mixture of pride and disgust as our lure zinged out into the world”. And a great many swallowed it whole.

Headlines around the world screamed Has the world gone coco? Eating chocolate can help you LOSE weight, Need a ‘sweeter’ way to lose weight? Eat chocolates! and, perhaps more boringly, Study: Chocolate helps weight loss.

Some of these reports remain online today in the same state as they were published, although some outlets, such as Cosmopolitan Germany and Huffington Post India, have since updated to reveal the sting. The Australian TV news piece has been deleted, like the mistake never happened.

What’s the washup?

The reporters around the world who cut-and-pasted Bohannon’s press release certainly aren’t blameless. None did the due diligence – such as looking at the journal, looking for details about the number of study participants, or even looking for the institute Bohannon claimed to work for (which exists only as a website) – that was necessary to find out if the study was legitimate.

But if we’re really looking to find fault here, we’ve got to cast our net a bit wider. As Bohannon and his colleagues noted, there’s a “diet research-media complex” here that’s almost rotten to the core.

From beginning to end we’ve got a system with almost as much scope for corruption as a BBQ at a high ranking FIFA official’s house:

  • we’ve got researchers around the world who have taken to heart the dictum that the quantity of research outputs is more important than the quality

  • we’ve got journal publishers at the high quality end that care about media impact more than facts

  • we’ve got journal publishers at the no-quality end who exploit the desperation of researchers by offering the semblance of publication for a modest sum

  • we’ve got media outlets pushing their journalists ever harder to fill our eyeballs with clickbaity and sharebaity content, regardless of truth

  • and we’ve got us: simple creatures prone to click, read and share the things that appeal to our already existing biases and baser selves.

Not the heroes we want

In the stories they tell about themselves, scientists, journalists and popular and scholarly publishers share a common dogma: that they’re heroes in the pursuit of truth. This may be true as individuals, but the pressures of their respective industries distort them in ways which can be utterly cyncial.

And so it’s interesting that Bohannon has pulled a similar prank to this before, submitting a deeply flawed paper on possible cancer inhibiting molecules to a plethora of different journals, with many accepting the paper with nary a comment.

We should, perhaps, look at work like this in the abstract – as a form of trolling to expose the self serving, the cynical and the corrupt. Trolls like Bohannon may not be the heroes we want, but they’re the heroes this dirty world of ours needs.

Will J Grant does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

Office workers, stand up from your desk for two hours a day

We’ve known for some time that too much sitting increases your risk of diabetes, certain cancers, heart disease and early death. But until now it’s been unclear how much standing during the work day may counter this increased risk.

Desk-based office workers should spend at least two hours of their working day standing or moving. Tim Caynes/Flickr, CC BY-NC

We’ve known for some time that too much sitting increases your risk of diabetes, certain cancers, heart disease and early death. But until now it’s been unclear how much standing during the work day may counter this increased risk.

Guidelines published today in the British Journal of Sports Medicine urge employers change their workplace culture and social norms around the sedentary office. It recommends desk-based office workers spend at least two hours of their working day standing or moving, and to gradually progress to four hours.

Commissioned by Public Health England and Active Working Community Interest Company, an international group of experts from the United Kingdom, United States and Australia (including myself) spent several months reviewing the existing evidence. There was much lively “debate” and several revisions before reaching the final recommendations.

As well as two hours of standing and light activity such as light walking each day (progressing to four hours), the guidelines recommend:

Height-adjustable desks allow users to alternate between sitting and standing.
Dennis Yang/Flickr, CC BY
  • Regularly breaking up seated-based work with standing-based work, with the use of adjustable sit-stand desks or work stations

  • Avoiding prolonged static standing, which may be as harmful as prolonged sitting

  • Altering posture or light walking to alleviate possible musculoskeletal pain and fatigue while you adapt to more standing or moving

  • Warning staff about the potential dangers of too much time sitting down either at work or at home.

The recommendations are based largely on observational and retrospective studies or short-term intervention studies showing breaks from sitting reduce the risk of developing heart disease and metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Clearly, longer-term intervention studies are needed and future refinements to the guidelines will be required as more evidence is published.

There are two elements of the recommendations that could be easily overlooked but are of great importance. First, the two and eventually four hours a day of standing and light activity should be accumulated across the working day to avoid introducing other harms associated with prolonged static standing. These include blood pooling in the lower legs and feet and varicose veins.

Regularly breaking up prolonged seated work with standing-based work is the key message here. This is consistent with the 2014 Australian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour guidelines that recommend adults to “minimise the time spent in prolonged sitting” and “break up long periods of sitting as often as possible”.

Spend part of the two hours getting out for a light walk.
bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock

Second, the initial guidelines provide the platform for employers to further raise awareness among employees that prolonged sitting, aggregated from work and leisure time, may significantly increase disease risk. Adults who sit for ten hours per day have an estimated 34% higher risk of early death, even if they exercise regularly.

The use of a sit-to-stand adjustable work desk is one solution to the problem of prolonged sitting in the workplace. But these desks shouldn’t be viewed as the only solution. It’s also important to note that long-term studies of the likely impact on health outcomes are not yet available.

Employers should provide alternative ways of working to those that have become so ingrained in modern workplaces.

A glaring example is long meetings where participants must sit, uninterrupted. Organisations such as the National Heart Foundation of Australia are now instituting “standing agenda items” so participants can stand up and move around the room. In the past this may have been seen as being disruptive.Watch Full Movie Streaming Online and Download

Other organisations are providing headsets that allow workers to move about during long phone calls.

Many offices are removing personal waste bins and opting for a central bin to encourage movement.

If you need a prompt to get up and moving at work, give up the chair for a day on June 11 for the campaign On Your Feet Australia. It might also give employers the nudge they need to start changing sedentary workplace cultures to improve their employees’ health and reduce the nation’s burden of heart disease and diabetes.

David Dunstan receives funding from National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Research Council, Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, National Heart Foundation of Australia and BUPA. He has been invited in the to present his work at international/national seminars/workshops convened by office furniture companies Ergotron (2012) and Zenith Interiors (2015) – payment was received as reimbursement for his time and the costs associated with travel/accommodation.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

Thank you bikini terrorists for moving us on from throwback diet ads – now #eachbodysready

In the 1980s the Beverley Hills Diet recommended eating only fruit so that “the more time you spend on the toilet the better” and was described as the mass marketing of an eating disorder.

We all are. Twitter: @everyoneisetra

In the 1980s the Beverley Hills Diet recommended eating only fruit so that “the more time you spend on the toilet the better” and was described as the mass marketing of an eating disorder. At around the same time the Barbie doll was criticised as unrealistic and unhealthy and the use of unnatural catwalk models was held as contributing to the rise of eating disorders.

Yet here we are, 35 years later, with a “beach body” advert for protein supplements suggesting that “substituting two daily meals of an energy restricted diet with a meal replacement contributes to weight loss” alongside yet another unrealistic image of a woman that can only be achieved through starvation.

Surely we have moved on by now? And surely some of the evidence from all those tirelessly produced research studies and academic papers showing the negative impact of media images on our body image has got out there to make a difference to how people think?

Well thanks to the bikini terrorists – the people who have hijacked the ad and made their own messages about body confidence (spawning an #eachbodysready hashtag) – it would seem that it has. And even if the manufacturers pushing the magic pills haven’t woken up to the modern world, the women, men and even children lodging their protest in both the virtual and real world indicate that things have changed and we are no longer prepared to be manipulated in this way.

The feminist reaction:

Corporate pile in:

Alternative takes:

Men too:


<a class="source" href="https://www.facebook.com/Eachbodysready/photos/a.398980163617606 viagra prix en france.1073741827.398978713617751/399073376941618/?type=1&theater”>Facebook/Eachbodysready

So what is so wrong with this particular advertising campaign? And why has it created such a stir in the past few days?

We currently live in a world of food trapped between two evils. On one hand, we have the problem of eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia which have the highest mortality rate of any mental health problem. And on the other, we have the rise in obesity which is linked to a host of health problems and shortens life expectancy. The solution to these problems is three-fold – and this advert violates each of them in a spectacular way.

1: Eat well – a PR’s worst nightmare

Obesity will be neither prevented nor cured by “cutting out carbs”, “a zero-fat diet”, “meal substitutes” or any fad diet that the diet industry has to offer. Eating well is the solution and this simply means a diet high in fruit and vegetables and everything in moderation.

It’s not very marketable and comes with no great catchphrase. In fact it’s the PR company’s worst nightmare. But it prevents the rebound effects of diets which are unsustainable and helps food become one part of life rather than its focus. “Eat to live” not “Live to Eat” should be the goal. A protein pill in a jar is not eating well.Born in China 2017 film download

2: Be active – boost esteem

Walking, running, playing sport, doing exercise or just not sitting have short and long effects on both physical and mental health. Improved fitness does wonders for heart disease, diabetes and cancer. It can also help weight loss – and makes any weight loss much easier to sustain. And even if your weight stays the same, being active improves self esteem and creates a sense of well-being and happiness. Just being outdoors (and away from the sofa or desk) has to be good for anyone. All of which is great for eating disorders and obesity.

If only the woman in the advert wasn’t just standing there. She could at least have been running on her beach and not just passively waiting to be admired.

3: Feel good – fight 50 years of harm

Low self esteem can lead to under or overeating as a means to regain a sense of control over a life which feels uncontrollable. But overeating causes weight gain which in turn lowers self esteem and traps people in a cycle as they use food to make themselves feel better, but end up feeling worse. Yet feeling good about yourself is often the first step to recovery from any mental health problem and can help restore a more healthy relationship with food. The cycle can be broken. This advert does harm – it’s one in a 50-year list of media images of unrealistic bodies that have harmed women’s self esteem.

Not only was this advert a throwback to several decades ago, masterminded by those who seem to be living in the past, but it violates the solutions essential if we are to confront the contemporary problems of eating disorders and obesity. I was worried that no one would notice. So thank you bikini terrorists for pointing this out to more people than I would have believed possible, and for dragging those responsible into the modern world.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com