Take a chill pill if you want to avoid the flu this year

Along with snow and frigid temperatures, the winter months also bring coughs, colds and the flu. Lower respiratory tract infections, the ones that cause feelings of chest congestion despite the deepest coughs, are one of the top 10 causes of death in the United States and around the world.

Avoiding stress could help stave off the flu. Sick woman via www.shutterstock.com.

Along with snow and frigid temperatures, the winter months also bring coughs, colds and the flu. Lower respiratory tract infections, the ones that cause feelings of chest congestion despite the deepest coughs, are one of the top 10 causes of death in the United States and around the world. In the U.S. the flu alone kills thousands of people each year.

Besides causing poor health, the flu and other respiratory illness also have a huge impact on the economy. A study published in 2007 suggests that flu epidemics account for over US$10 billion per year in direct medical care costs, while lost earnings due to illness account for an additional $16.3 billion per year. And that doesn’t cover run-of-the-mill colds and coughs. The total economic impact of non-influenza viral respiratory tract infections is estimated at another $40 billion per year.

Avoiding the flu or catching a cold in the winter months can be tough, but there is something you can do in addition to getting the flu shot and washing your hands.

Relax. There’s strong evidence that stress affects the immune system and can make you more susceptible to infections.

Big doses of stress can hurt your immune system

Health psychologist Andrew Baum defined stress as “a negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, and behavioral changes that are directed toward adaptation.” Scientists can actually measure the body’s stress response – the actions the body takes to fight through arduous situations ranging from difficult life events to infections.

In most stress responses, the body produces chemicals called pro-inflammatory cytokines. They activate the immune system, and without them the body would not be able to fight off bacteria, viruses or fungi. Normally the stress response is helpful because it preps your body to deal with whatever challenge is coming. When the danger passes, this response is turned off with help from anti-inflammatory cytokines.

However, if the stress response cannot be turned off, or if there is an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, the body can be damaged. This extra wear and tear due to the inflammation from a heightened stress response has been termed allostatic load. A high allostatic load has been associated with multiple chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This partly explains the focus on taking anti-inflammatory supplements to prevent or treat disease.

Short-term stress hurts too

An inappropriate stress response can do more than cause chronic illness down the road. It can also make you more susceptible to acute infections by suppressing the immune system.

For example, when mice are subjected to different environmental stressors, there is an increase in a molecule in their blood called corticosterone, which is known to have immunosuppressive effects on the body. This type of response is mirrored in research on humans. In a study of middle-aged and older women, stress from being instructed to complete a mental math or speech test was associated with higher levels of similar immunosuppressive molecules.

A similar response has been documented among medical students. A 1995 study showed that the students who reported “feeling stressed” the most during exam periods also had the highest levels of molecules with immunosuppressant characteristics.

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Stress won’t make you healthier.
Stressed out man image via www.shutterstock.com.

Stress makes it easier to get sick

There is also direct evidence that stress can increase risk of infection. For instance, a group of scientists in Spain used surveys to assess stress in 1,149 people for a year and then measured how many colds occurred within the group. They found that every dimension of stress they measured was associated with an increased risk for getting the common cold. While this study’s large sample size and design make it particularly noteworthy, the relationship between colds and stress has been reported since the 1960s.

More recently, we presented a study that calculated allostatic load scores in over 10,000 people that were a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2002. We searched for associations between those allostatic load scores and the likelihood of having reported symptoms of a communicable disease, like the common cold. We found that the higher the score, the more likely an individual was to have reported symptoms of illness.

While causality cannot be completely confirmed in the type of analysis we conducted, our calculations included multiple biological and clinical markers that would not likely have been significantly impacted by short-term illnesses alone. This suggests that the correlation between allostatic load score and disease symptoms was not simply due to the stress of having an illness.

Our results mirror what is generally accepted in the field. There are whole book chapters dedicated to describing the impacts of stress and infection risk. All this evidence seems to suggest that stress reduction might lead to a healthier cold and flu season.

A prescription for relaxation

While there are medications that can treat the flu, the latest evidence suggests they are only marginally effective at relieving symptoms and may have no impact on reducing the rate of hospitalizations. And Vitamin C, which is often touted as an over-the-counter cold remedy, has little impact on the incidence of the common cold according to the latest compilation of studies from the Cochrane Collaboration, an independent network of scientific researchers.

So keeping stress at bay might be a better bet for staying healthy. But besides just remembering to take deep breaths, participating in activities to reduce stress during the winter months has been shown to help reduce the burden of respiratory illnesses. This may include making good on that New Year’s resolution to get to the gym. In fact, a recent randomized controlled trial concluded that those who exercised or meditated had fewer severe acute respiratory illnesses than did a control group that did neither.

canada goose It may also help to talk to somebody, such as your physician or a psychologist, about techniques to manage stress. In a clinical trial done with children between the ages of 8-12, those who talked with therapists about relaxation management had improved mood and decreased frequency of colds. On a cellular level, those in the therapist group had increased levels of secretory immunoglobulin A, one of the molecules that is responsible for protecting mucosal surfaces, like the lung, from infection. These types of relaxation techniques are not just for kids. Review articles conclude relaxation techniques are an important therapeutic strategy for stress-related diseases.

canada goose Cold and flu season is here, but getting worried about it might only hurt your chances of staying healthy. Instead, consider how stress hurts your immune system, and write yourself a prescription for relaxation.

celine handbags The authors do not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

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Four common myths about exercise and weight loss

It’s that time of year when many are trying, and some are failing, to live up to their New Years’ resolution of losing weight.

Exercise isn’t the best way to lose weight, in fact it’s one of the hardest. Nottingham Trent University/Flickr, CC BY-SA

It’s that time of year when many are trying, and some are failing, to live up to their New Years’ resolution of losing weight. Many of these probably include resolutions to be more physically active in striving for this goal. But first, there are some common misconceptions about exercise and weight loss that need to be addressed.

Myth 1. Exercise is the best way to lose weight

While there is plenty of evidence showing people can lose weight just by being physically active, it is also one of the hardest ways to go about it.

Our energy balance is mostly determined by what we eat and our metabolic rate (the energy you burn when you do nothing). Our energy balance is determined only to a small extent by how active we are. That means losing weight just by being active is very hard work.

The American College of Sports Medicine recommends accumulating 250 to 300 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per week for weight loss. That is twice the amount of physical activity recommended for good health (30 minutes on most days), and most Australians don’t even manage that.

The best way to lose weight is through combining a nutritious, low-calorie diet with regular physical activity.

Just exercising is an extremely difficult way to shed kilos.
Nina Hale/Flickr, CC BY

Myth 2. You can’t be fat and fit

Inactive people of healthy weight may look OK, but this isn’t necessarily the case. When you’re not active you have a higher risk of heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, some cancers, depression and anxiety. Several studies have demonstrated the association between premature death and being overweight or obese disappears when fitness is taken into account (although another study disputed this).

This means you can still be metabolically healthy while being overweight, but only if you’re regularly active. Of course, people who are fit and of normal weight have the best health outcomes, so there are still plenty of reasons to try to shed some weight.

Myth 3. No pain, no gain

Or in other words, “no suffering, no weight loss”. As mentioned earlier, if you want to lose weight by being active, you will need to do a lot of it. But while physical activity of a moderate intensity is recommended, guidelines do not say activity needs to be of vigorous intensity.

Moderate intensity physical activity makes you breathe harder and may make it more difficult to talk, but you should still be able to carry on a conversation (such as brisk walking, riding a bicycle at a moderate pace). This is unlike vigorous physical activity, which will make you completely out of breath and will make you sweat profusely regardless of the weather conditions (such as running).

Moderate intensity physical activity is not painful and does not include excessive suffering to meet your goals. A study of weight loss in groups with higher intensity and lower volumes of activity compared to groups of lower intensity and higher volumes of activity did not find significant differences.

Myth 4. Only resistance training will help you lose weight

Resistance or strength training is good for you for several reasons. It increases functional capacity (the ability to perform tasks safely and independently) and lean body mass, and prevents falls and osteoporosis. But the main idea for promoting it to lose weight is that muscle mass needs more energy than fat mass, even when at rest. Therefore the more muscular you are, the higher your metabolic rate, which makes it easier to expend the energy you’re taking on board.

However, building muscle mass takes a serious effort, and you need to keep doing resistance training or significant loss of muscle mass will occur within weeks.

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Not everyone enjoys weight lifting, so do what you prefer.
Sherri Abendroth/Flickr, CC BY

More importantly though, aerobic or endurance training is also good to help you lose weight. In fact, a recent study demonstrated that endurance training was more effective in producing weight loss compared to resistance training. It’s also likely many people will get more enjoyment out of a brisk walk than a session of weight-lifting, so the most important thing is to pick an exercise routine you enjoy and thus will actually stick to.

To help you get started on your journey to a more active and potentially leaner lifestyle, you can sign up for free physical activity programs such as www.10000steps.org.au. If you want to take part in our web-based physical activity research study, you can register your interest here.

Corneel Vandelanotte receives funding from Queensland Health (for maintaining the 10,000 Steps Australia program), the National Health and Medical Research Council (project funding) and the National Heart Foundation of Australia (salary support).

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

Measuring up: this year, aim for fitness over fat loss for long-term success

Getting fit and losing weight are consistently among the top New Year’s resolutions, and January is the boom period for the billion-dollar gym industry.

January is the boom period for the billion-dollar gym industry. Hotel Der Oeschberghof – Golf – Spa – Tagung/Flickr, CC BY-ND

Getting fit and losing weight are consistently among the top New Year’s resolutions, and January is the boom period for the billion-dollar gym industry. While any attempt to incorporate more exercise into our lives should be welcomed, it’s time to rethink the reasons for joining the gym. And, in particular, the way we measure success when it comes to exercise.

Weight loss is one of the most common reasons why people start an exercise program, linking sweating it out with reduced fat. Sadly, they’re setting themselves up to fail because there’s good evidence that exercise in the absence of dietary modification is not all that effective for weight loss. In other words, “you can’t outrun a bad diet.”

In fact, the idea that exercise will lead to weight loss is potentially dangerous because it acts as a disincentive for people who stick to their exercise goals to only find the scales haven’t turned in their favour – and throw in the towel.

A better measure

Research published a few months ago shows the likelihood of an obese man achieving normal weight without surgery is one in 210. And the chances are only a little better for women, at one in 124. Among those who manage to lose significant weight (at least 5% of bodyweight), at least half will regain it within two years.

Weight loss is very important for improving health and reducing risk of chronic disease. But when focusing on the reasons people should be physically active and engage in regular exercise, fitness, as opposed to fatness is a better focus.

Exercise can directly improve fitness independent of changes in weight. And it may be protective of developing chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, even for people who are overweight or obese. But the importance of trying to lose weight through broad lifestyle change shouldn’t be ignored.

A recent study of over 1.3 million Swedish men found that when it comes to risk of dying early, high fitness isn’t protective for people who are obese. But it showed fitness was an important factor nonetheless and didn’t measure other key health outcomes. Most importantly, improving fitness is a tangible and achievable outcome, so it’s more motivating.

Poor fitness is a modifiable factor associated with heart disease. Other benefits people may gain from exercise, apart from weight loss, include improved mental health, improved sleep and reduced risk of conditions, such as Alzheimer’s and dementia.

Helpful hints

Joining a gym may work for some, but it’s not the only way of getting the benefits of regular exercise. Here are some practical tips to get moving.

You can’t outrun a bad diet.
liebeslakritze/Flickr, CC BY-SA

1. Avoid a “all-or-nothing” mentality and remember that every bit of time spent exercising instead of being sedentary counts.

When you’re in the habit of exercising regularly, it’s easier to keep going and find the motivation to continue. But when you’ve been inactive for a while, such as over the holiday season, it’s often difficult to overcome the mindset of feeling overwhelmed and out of touch with exercising. This often leaves people feeling unsure about where to begin.

To avoid feeling lost, try setting some realistic, and achievable goals that can be written down and achieved every day. Plan for the worse-case scenario (such as those extra long lunches). Even one set of squats, five minutes of yoga, or a brief walk around the block may be enough to avoid the build-up of post-holiday exercise fear.

2. Seek help getting active, especially if you have a chronic or complex medical conditions. Australia has one of the most progressive physical activity referral schemes in the world, which means people with chronic conditions can be referred to accredited exercise physiologists or physiotherapists to receive individualised exercise programs.

If weight loss is your primary aim, seek help from an accredited practising dietitian to help modify your diet.

3. When it comes to exercise, forget the scales and focus on moving more and sitting less. Wearable technology can help with monitoring and goal setting.

Use other ways of measuring progress, such as how breathless you feel after walking up that set of stairs or how much easier it is to carry the groceries, as well.

4. Don’t forget resistance training (muscle building exercise). Working muscles is not only for young men; it has considerable benefits for men and women of all ages.

Most importantly, the best exercise program is the one that’s realistic for your situation, enjoyable and progressively more challenging. And it’s not necessarily one limited to the gym.


This article is part of our series about New Year’s resolutions, A Fresh Start.

Simon Rosenbaum is funded by a Society for Mental Health Research Early Career Fellowship. He is a National Director of Exercise and Sports Science Australia.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

Stored fat is a feat of evolution – and your body will fight to keep it

In spite of the bad press, stored fat is actually a really wonderful thing. Without the capacity to store energy in the form of fat, we would have been unlikely to survive through millions of years of evolution and we would certainly look very different to the way we look today.

Know why stored fat is bad for modern humans? kurhan/www.shutterstock.com

In spite of the bad press, stored fat is actually a really wonderful thing. Without the capacity to store energy in the form of fat, we would have been unlikely to survive through millions of years of evolution and we would certainly look very different to the way we look today. We needed the capacity to store energy to survive periods of famine, and fat is a very sensible way to do this.

Even a relatively lean 75kg man typically has over 100,000kcal stored in the form of fat. If we had to store this energy in other forms – for example as glycogen, the storage form of carbohydrate – our weight would increase by 40-60kg (because glycogen is less energy dense and also stored in combination with water). Imagine dragging around two packed suitcases while hunting or gathering and you’ll get the idea of why it has been so useful to package stored energy in the form of fat.

So, while fat is often demonised, it has also been our friend through millions of years of evolution. It makes sense for our bodies to store energy in this way and to develop systems to cling on to it just in case there is a famine around the corner.

But, our relationship with fat has changed. While some fat is essential and healthy, accumulating too much body fat has a detrimental impact on our health by increasing the risk of chronic diseases. So, storing too much energy in the form of fat is clearly not a good thing. Sadly, most people are now storing too much energy as fat and many people in the developed and developing world are now considered overweight or obese.

Difficult to let go

Excess stored fat is a particularly difficult problem to solve in part because we have evolved such sophisticated processes to protect fat stores once we have them.

One of the best-characterised physiological systems involves leptin, a protein secreted by our fat stores (adipose tissue) – that tells the brain that there is plenty of energy available stored in the form of fat. When discovered, there was a great deal of excitement about whether leptin could be administered as a treatment for obesity – perhaps in an injection that would trick the body into thinking that there were large amounts of fat available so that we do not eat as much. Sadly, these potential treatments were not effective and we now understand why.

As we store more and more fat the leptin level in our blood will increase in proportion to the increase in stored fat. Our brains get used to this higher level of leptin, so administering more leptin over and above this higher level of leptin does not seem to help. Instead, it is when leptin levels fall that leptin becomes a very important signal. When we try to lose weight, there is a disproportionately large fall in circulating leptin in spite of only modest fat loss.

A fall in leptin is an attempt to defend fat stores with leptin functioning as the signal to the brain in a negative feedback loop that maintains the stability of fat mass. A fall in leptin is associated with increased sensations of hunger and an increase in “reward-related” behaviours. Reduced leptin is also a trigger for depressive symptoms in animals. So, when we try to lose weight, our fat tissue sends signals to the brain to try to resist any further loss of fat; we feel hungry, we seek rewards, and we might feel a little down or depressed.

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Not guaranteed to work if your hormones have anything to do with it.
Weight loss by Shutterstock

What can we do about this? Well, a recent study indicated that fat tissue may have some other properties that we might be able to manipulate to help. Some specialised types of fat cells (adipocytes) have the ability to burn energy to help keep us warm (a process called thermogenesis). The authors showed that this type of thermogenesis is normally turned off by a specific protein called sLR11. This makes sense because for millions of years we have been striving to store fat and only use it when there is a very good reason.

Interestingly, in this study, mice created without sLR11 did not gain weight when overfed because they burned more of the energy that was consumed. The authors also showed in a small number of patients undergoing bariatric surgery that the fall in sLR11 was related to the decrease in fat mass. Based on these observations, they suggested that sLR11 stops energy from being wasted via thermogenesis in fat tissue. By inference, if we can turn this off in humans then we might be able to get the body to use (waste) energy rather than clinging on to it.

Before we get too carried away, a caveat here is that this type of thermogenesis is mostly confined to certain types of fat cells (brown adipocytes or “brown fat”) and these cells are more rare and probably less important in humans than in rodents. We can also achieve thermogenesis through other means such as burning energy through movement. We know that increasing thermogenesis through movement leads to a fall in leptin and that this probably explains why an exercise programme causes people to eat more and not lose as much weight as they should. Whether burning energy through increased adipose thermogenesis will have the same effect in humans still also needs to be established.

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Dylan Thompson receives funding from BBSRC, MRC, British Heart Foundation, Diabetes UK, and Unilever.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

What is the best exercise for losing weight?

It may come as little surprise that taking exercise is a way to lose weight. However, a debate about the best type of exercise for weight loss is likely to divide opinion.

Pumping iron: Is it really all worth it? W_Minshull, CC BY

It may come as little surprise that taking exercise is a way to lose weight. However, a debate about the best type of exercise for weight loss is likely to divide opinion.

The most obvious choice is endurance-type exercise which is usually done at a moderate intensity or steady state. The rationale is clear. This type of exercise expends more energy than resistance training.

Others will stress the importance of resistance training and its effects on basal metabolic rate (BMR). A single bout of resistance exercise can lead to a sustained increase in BMR that persists for up to 48 hours after exercise. Furthermore, increases in BMR have been observed after ten weeks of resistance training compared to endurance training and this may assist with weight control in the long term – at the cellular level, muscle tissue is denser than fat tissue and is therefore more “expensive” to run.

An alternative option is high-intensity interval training or HIT. Exercise is carried out at a low or moderate intensity with the caveat that several short bouts of high-intensity, often “all-out”’, exercise are included. It is considered to be more time-efficient and research shows this type of exercise can bring about rapid beneficial changes in metabolic function and even reductions in body fat. However, such exercise is likely intolerable for many people due to its explosive, rather gruelling nature.

Others still might focus on increasing profiles of activity in everyday life – more gardening, say, or walking to work – rather than embarking on structured exercise routines.

No pain, no gain
San Diego Shooter/flickr, CC BY

Can you keep up?

But the answer to the original question is simple. The best type of exercise for losing weight is the one that you will actually do.

Most people will not sustain a behaviour from which they derive no pleasure. The incentives for losing weight are obvious, but human behaviour is unpredictable when pleasure is involved. The optimum approach is probably to combine different types of exercise to receive the benefit of each. Alongside this, some form of conscious control over energy intake must be considered because the reality for many is that a considerable volume of exercise is required to significantly reduce body fat.

Exercise-induced weight loss also varies markedly between individuals, with behavioural, biological and genetic factors also playing their part. However, judging exercise solely by its effects on body weight might be damaging since exercise provides a plethora of other benefits.

We are designed to move and as such must respect our genes or accept the consequences. Arguably we should stop focusing on the optimum approach to exercise and find an approach that we might deem to be “good enough”.

Matthew Haines does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

Five key findings from 15 years of the International Space Station

The International Space Station is the longest-running continuously inhabited human outpost in space – this year it celebrated its 15th anniversary. As the ISS orbits the Earth it is essentially in a state of free fall, counteracting the Earth’s gravity and providing an ideal platform for science in space.

NASA/wikimedia

The International Space Station is the longest-running continuously inhabited human outpost in space – this year it celebrated its 15th anniversary. As the ISS orbits the Earth it is essentially in a state of free fall, counteracting the Earth’s gravity and providing an ideal platform for science in space.

Science aboard the ISS is decidedly cross-disciplinary, including fields as diverse as microbiology, space science, fundamental physics, human biology, astronomy, meteorology and Earth observation to name a few. But let’s take a look at some of the biggest findings.

1. The fragility of the human body

The effects of the space environment on the human body during long duration spaceflight are of significant interest if we want to one day venture far beyond the Earth. A crewed journey to Mars, for example, may take a year, and the same time again for the return leg.

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Astronaut Frank De Winne.
NASA/wikimedia

Microgravity research on the ISS has demonstrated that the human body would lose considerable bone and muscle mass on such a mission. Mitigation technology, involving the use of resistive exercise devices, has shown that it is possible to substantially alleviate bone and muscle loss. Coupled with other studies into appropriate nutrition and drug use, these investigations may lead to improvements in the treatment of osteoporosis, a condition affecting millions of people across the globe.

2. Interplanetary contamination

A long-term goal of many space agencies is to fly humans to Mars. The red planet is of particular interest because it is one of the most accessible locations in which past or present extraterrestrial life may exist. It is imperative, therefore, that we do not inadvertently contaminate Mars with terrestrial organisms. Likewise, we must be careful not to back-contaminate Earth with any possible Martian life forms during a sample return mission.

Tough fellow: Bacillus subtilis.
Allonweiner/wikimedia

Certain hardy bacterial spores, such as the Bacillus subtilis in the picture were exposed to space aboard the ISS, but shielded from solar UV-radiation, and demonstrated a high survival rate. The space vacuum and temperature extremes alone were not enough to kill them off. These remarkable bugs could be capable of surviving an interplanetary space flight to Mars and live there, under a thin layer of soil, were they to be accidentally deposited by a spacecraft.

This finding has huge implications; if microorganisms, or their DNA, can survive interplanetary spaceflight, albeit by natural means, it leaves open the possibility that life on Earth may originally have arrived from Mars, or elsewhere .

3. Growing crystals for medicine

A key challenge in developing effective medicines is understanding the shape of protein molecules in the human body. Proteins are responsible for a huge range of biological functions, including DNA replication and digestion – and protein crystallography is an essential tool for understanding protein structure. Crystal growth within a fluid on Earth is somewhat inhibited by gravity-driven convection and the settling out of denser particles at the bottom of the fluid vessel.

Crystals in a microgravity environment may be grown to much larger sizes than on Earth, enabling easier analysis of their micro-structure. Protein crystals grown on the ISS are being used in the development of new drugs for diseases such as muscular dystrophy and cancer.

4. Cosmic rays and dark matter

Space is permeated by a constant flux of energetic charged particles called cosmic rays. When cosmic rays encounter the Earth’s atmosphere they disintegrate, producing a shower of secondary particles which can be detected at ground level. Some cosmic rays may emanate from explosive events such as supernovae or, closer to home, flares on our own sun. But in many cases their source is unknown.

In order to better understand these enigmatic particles, we need to catch them before they reach the atmosphere. Mounted on the ISS is the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), the most sensitive particle detector ever launched into space. This device collects cosmic rays and measures both their energy and incoming direction.

In 2013, early results showed that cosmic ray electrons and their anti-matter counterparts, positrons, emanated from all directions in space, rather than from specific locations.

Approximately one quarter of the mass-energy of the universe is believed to be comprised of dark matter, a substance of unknown composition, which may be a source of cosmic rays. The theorised presence of dark matter envisages a halo of the material surrounding the Milky Way (and other galaxies), and is thus supported by the isotropic nature of the cosmic ray electrons and positrons detected by AMS, essentially coming at us from all directions in space.

It has never been detected directly and it’s true nature is one of the greatest unanswered questions in modern astrophysics.

5. Efficient combustion

Deliberately starting a fire on an orbital space station does not sound, initially, like a good idea. It turns out, however, that the physics of flames in microgravity is quite interesting. The flame extinguishment study is an understandably carefully designed facility whereby tiny droplets of fuel, which form into spheres under microgravity, are ignited.

Flames on Earth assume their familiar shape because gravity-driven convection results in an updraught of air, drawing the burning mixture of fuel and gas upwards. In microgravity there is no updraught and so a flame assumes a diffuse spherical shape around the combustion source. Further, the yellow colour of a flame is produced by the incandescence of tiny soot particles. Soot forms from incomplete burning of the fuel and is a pollutant.

In microgravity, the combustion of a fuel is more complete and hence more efficient. A candle flame that would appear yellow on Earth, actually burns with a blue colour in microgravity and produces much less smoke. This kind of research enables the study of soot formation processes which has negative impacts on the environment and human health, and how droplets of fuel in a combustion engine transition from a liquid to a gas as they burn. This may one day lead to more efficient designs for combustion engines on Earth.

Gareth Dorrian receives funding from the Natural Environment Research Council.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

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When you think about body fat, it’s probably white fat that comes to mind. That’s where our bodies store excess calories, and it’s the stuff you want to get rid of when you are trying to lose weight.

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The Director of this movie is Garth Davis. The film Lion is produced by The Weinstein Company, Screen Australia, Sunstar Entertainment, See-Saw Films, Aquarius Films and released in November 24, 2016

Similar Movie
Lion have some similar movie, Nerve, Strangerland, Fifty Shades Darker, Forrest Gump, Wake in Fright, Walkabout

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Will you gain weight this Christmas?

For most of us, Christmas and its festivities revolve around consuming tasty food and drinks with colleagues, friends and family. Between work Christmas parties, Christmas lunch or dinner, edible presents and New Year’s Eve, it can be an effort not to gain weight.

Food, food, everywhere. Pixabay

For most of us, Christmas and its festivities revolve around consuming tasty food and drinks with colleagues, friends and family. Between work Christmas parties, Christmas lunch or dinner, edible presents and New Year’s Eve, it can be an effort not to gain weight.

Seasonal variations in body weight

The human body can be quite remarkable in its ability to maintain a stable weight over the long term. One small American study reported average fluctuations of just 0.5 kg throughout a year. Weight peaked in winter, which may be due to poorer weather and lower physical activity, but returned to normal.

Others, however, gradually gain weight over the years.
A study of 120,000 Americans found weight gain averaged 3.35 lb (1.52 kg) over four-year periods.

The good news is that reducing your energy intake
by around 100 calories (418 kilojoules) per day can prevent such weight gain. This could equate to not having that extra biscuit, or walking more each day.

Are we likely to gain weight over Christmas?

We often don’t follow our normal routines during the holidays. Therefore our lifestyle behaviours and body weight can change.

There aren’t many high-quality studies that look at body weight and fat changes over the Christmas period, but the studies that have been done report conflicting results.

A 2009 American study of 195 adults over the six- to eight-week winter holiday reported an average weight increase of 0.37 kg.

Another study of 26 English adults over a two-week Christmas holiday found they gained an average of 1 kg, even though five were sick (and three lost weight). The maximum weight gain was 4.4 kg.

Go for a smaller plate if you want to eat less.
Pixabay, CC BY

Yet another study reported a weight change of around 0.4 kg in non-obese Swedish adults over a two- to three-week Christmas break. Obese participants, however, reported highly variable changes in weight, from a gain of 6.1 kg to a loss of 8.8 kg.

This difference between people of contrasting starting weights was also found in another American study of 94 college students. Over a two-week Thanksgiving period, the overweight/obese students gained an average of 1.0 kg, while those with a normal body mass index (BMI) gained just 0.2 kg.

Some studies reported no weight gain, but an increase in body fat over the holidays.

However, other studies found no change in either body weight or body fat over festive periods, even if there were changes to eating and physical activity patterns.

What’s to blame?

In the large study of 120,000 American adults, the foods associated with weight increase over four-year periods include potato chips, potatoes, sugar-sweetened beverages and unprocessed and processed red meats.

Foods that were associated with lower weight included vegetables, whole grains, fruits, nuts and yoghurt.

Other lifestyle behaviours were also associated with weight gain: physical inactivity (including television watching), alcohol intake and sleeping less than six or more than eight hours each day.

It’s not hard to imagine these factors at play in someone’s Christmas holidays. Potato chips, soft drinks and alcohol might fill the table at the work Christmas party.

Hangovers and too little or too much sleep might mean that you indulge excessively in fast food burgers while binge-watching Netflix.

If you’re drinking spirits, choose soda as a mixer.
Pixabay, CC BY

Five tips to avoid a belly like Santa’s

1) Choose foods that have been associated with healthier body weights in the longer term and increased satiety in the shorter term, such as fruits and vegetables, and leaner foods that are higher in fibre and protein.

So choose:Watch Full Movie Online Streaming Online and Download

  • salads (including fruit, green, potato and quinoa ones) over white bread
  • oat slices or biscuits over shortbread biscuits
  • roasted nuts over potato chips
  • turkey breast over salami
  • shrimps and other seafood over sausages.

2) Eat intuitively: try to listen to your hunger and fullness. This will help with the feeling of sickness that can come at the end of Christmas day due to overconsumption.

Choose smaller plates, as these are associated with reduced food intake compared to larger plates – even if you have a level of intuitive eating.

Put a smaller variety of foods on your (smaller) plate – and don’t go back for seconds. If you have a large variety of foods, you are more likely to eat more – something called sensory-specific satiety.

3) Self-monitor! One study reported that systematically recording what you eat, drink and how much you move during holiday periods was associated with improved weight. Use goal-setting and self-monitoring sheets or apps to help regulate the amount of alcohol or potato chips you consume each day.

4) Go for walks or swims if the weather allows, and avoid spending the whole break binge-watching television.

5) Avoid soft drinks and excessive alcohol every day. When you do drink alcohol, choose a soda mixer with a piece of fresh lime to have with your spirits and drink water in between each alcoholic drink.

Keep it in perspective

At the end of the silly season, you may still have gained some weight. But keep it in perspective: it might have been due to quite pleasurable activities and it’s unlikely to be a problem in the long term, if you get back to your usual balanced exercise and eating routine.

It’s fine to indulge every now and then, even if it means going back for seconds of Christmas pudding on Christmas day. Just don’t indulge every other day of the holidays, too.

Dr Reynolds is the owner of The Real Bok Choy, www.therealbokchoy.com, a nutrition and lifestyle consultancy.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

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It has been almost 35 years since the world was introduced to the term AIDS. In the 1980s, researchers and physicians were trying to understand what was causing waves of strange infections and discovered it was a new virus called the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV.

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Want to do something good for your health? Try being generous

Every day, we are confronted with choices about how to spend our money. Whether it’s thinking about picking up the tab at a group lunch or when a charity calls asking for a donation, we are faced with the decision to behave generously or not.

People donate money during a flash football game organized by Arlington High School football player Max Gray, 18, to raise money for Jonielle Spiller, the mother of youth football player Jovon “Jo Jo” Mangual, 13, who died during the Oso mudslide, in Arlington. Jason Redmond/Reuters

Every day, we are confronted with choices about how to spend our money. Whether it’s thinking about picking up the tab at a group lunch or when a charity calls asking for a donation, we are faced with the decision to behave generously or not.

Research suggests that spending money on others can improve happiness, but can it also improve your physical health?

There is some evidence that donating time can improve physical health, but no one has looked at whether donating money has the same effect.

So my colleagues and I at the University of British Columbia decided to conduct an experiment to find out if spending money on others could lower blood pressure, which will be published in the journal Health Psychology in December.

Helping out.
ccbarr/Flickr, CC BY-SA

Helpful people might be healthier

A 1999 study examining whether volunteering had an effect on mortality provided initial evidence for an association between helping others and physical health. In the study, adults age 55 and older reported how many organizations they helped, how many hours they spent volunteering, and then underwent a physical exam.

Researchers controlled for several factors, including how healthy participants were when the study began and their available social support. After five years the adults who reported providing more help to others were 44% more likely to be alive.

In a more recent study, researchers measured blood pressure and volunteering once at baseline and again four years later. They found evidence that older adults who volunteered at least four hours per week in the 12 months prior to the baseline blood pressure measurement were less likely to develop high blood pressure four years later.

Additional studies suggest that volunteering is associated with greater physical health in part because volunteering helps to buffer against stress and prevents against declines in functional health, such as declines in walking speed and physical strength.

So does being helpful cause better health?

It might seem simple – helping is good for your health. But so far, most research studying the health benefits of helping have been correlational. These studies cannot determine whether helping others actually causes improvements in physical health or just happens to be related to it.

Also, most research has focused on the health benefits of volunteering one’s time. As it turns out, people think about time and money in vastly different ways. For example, whereas thinking about time leads people to prioritize social connections, thinking about money can lead people to distance themselves from others.

It remains unclear whether the benefits of generosity extend to donating money. Our latest work provides the first empirical evidence that this decision might also have clinically relevant implications for physical health.

Give a little.
Hand and coin via www.shutterstock.com.

Can spending money on others lower blood pressure?

We gave 128 older adults (ages 65-85) US$40 a week for three weeks. Half of our participants were randomly assigned to spend the money on themselves and half were told to spend it on others. We told participants to spend their $40 payment all in one day and to save the receipts from the purchases they had made.

We measured participants’ blood pressure before, during, and after they spent their study payments. We chose to examine blood pressure in this study because we can measure it reliably in the lab, and because high blood pressure is a significant health outcome – having chronically elevated blood pressure (hypertension) is responsible for 7.5 million premature deaths each year.

What did we find? Among participants who were previously diagnosed with high blood pressure (N=73), spending money on others significantly reduced their blood pressure over the course of the study. Critically, the magnitude of these effects was comparable to the benefits of interventions such as anti-hypertensive medication and exercise.

The participants who were previously diagnosed with high blood pressure, and who were assigned to spend money on themselves, showed no change in blood pressure during the study. As expected, for people who didn’t have high blood pressure, there was no benefit from spending money on others.

Whom you spend money on matters

Interestingly, we found tentative evidence that how people spent their money mattered for promoting the benefits of financial generosity acheter viagra generique en france. People seemed to benefit most from spending money on others they felt closest to. This finding is consistent with previous research from our lab showing that people derive the most satisfaction from spending money on others when they splurge on close friends and family.

For instance, the first participant in our study was a war veteran. He donated his payments to a school built in honor of a friend he had served with in the Vietnam War. Another participant donated her payments to a charity that had helped her granddaughter survive anorexia.

Of course, there is still a lot to learn about when and for whom the health benefits of financial generosity emerge.

For example, we don’t know a lot about how or how much people should spend on others to enjoy long-lasting health benefits. Indeed, research suggests that the positive benefits of new circumstances can disappear quickly. Thus, to sustain the health benefits of financial generosity, it might be necessary to engage in novel acts of financial generosity, while prioritizing people that you are closest to.

And financial generosity might not always benefit health. Drawing from research on caregiving, financial generosity might provide benefits only when it does not incur overwhelming personal costs. After reading this article, you probably should think twice before donating your entire life savings to charity, because the stress of helping so extensively could undermine any potential benefits.

Although more research is needed to replicate these results, our initial findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date that daily decisions related to engaging in financial generosity can have causal benefits for physical health.

Stepping toward better health (and happiness) may be as simple as spending your next $20 generously.

Ashley Whillans receives doctoral funding from the Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council of Canada and the Public Scholar Initiative at the University of British Columbia.

The research mentioned in this article was supported by Canadian Institute for Health Research grant MOP-110968 and a University of British Columbia Graduate Research Award.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

Pregnancy diabetes is a red flashing light that we can’t ignore

Most people are well aware of two of the main forms of diabetes – type 1, which usually first appears in young people; and the more common type 2, which often emerges in the over 40s and is associated with obesity and sedentary lifestyles.

The diabetes self-test: up to 16% of pregnant women are positive Image Point Fr

Most people are well aware of two of the main forms of diabetes – type 1, which usually first appears in young people; and the more common type 2, which often emerges in the over 40s and is associated with obesity and sedentary lifestyles. We hear far less about the third form, gestational diabetes, which temporarily affects as many as 16% of pregnant women.

Gestational diabetes is defined as glucose intolerance that is first diagnosed during pregnancy. Women with gestational diabetes are unable to produce enough insulin to meet the extra demands of carrying a child, the risk of which increases with each successive pregnancy. For the majority of them, the condition is diagnosed during the second or third trimester. Many of the risk factors, such as age, obesity and family history, are the same as those for type 2 diabetes. And, just like type 2 diabetes, many countries have seen prevalence rates rise over the past few decades.

Risky business

Most women with gestational diabetes return to normal glucose tolerance after delivery, but there are immediate risks for both mother and baby. These include spontaneous pre-term labour, delivering a large baby, infant respiratory distress syndrome and <a href="http://www viagra generique canada.nhs.uk/conditions/cardiomyopathy/Pages/Introduction.aspx”>heart muscle diseases.

But gestational diabetes is also associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in later life: seven times that of the general population. This equates to a staggering 50% chance of developing type 2 diabetes within ten years. The children of women who have had gestational diabetes are also six times more at risk of developing type 2 diabetes as the general population.film Spotlight 2015 trailer

Women with gestational diabetes are not unaware of these risks. Claire Eades, a University of Stirling researcher, recently interviewed some Scottish women who had had the condition. At the time of diagnosis, most had worried about the possible side effects to the baby, and talked graphically about their fears of delivering a big baby. Some changed their lifestyles during pregnancy as a result.

The women usually also knew their increased risk of type 2 diabetes, having been told by their healthcare professionals. But once they had delivered a healthy baby and returned to normal glucose tolerance, many quickly forgot. One compared gestational diabetes to maternity clothes – put away and forgotten until the next pregnancy.

Healthy baby, why worry?
LiAndStudio

The case for action

Since the risks of type 2 diabetes can be reduced by taking more exercise, a healthy diet and maintaining a healthy weight, we need to find ways to encourage this where it is needed. The later stages of pregnancy and early stages of motherhood are hardly the best time when women are dealing with big life changes and pressing demands on time and energy.

To date, there have been few attempts to measure which kinds of interventions are best to encourage women to take the best steps – which possibly reflects the scale of the challenge. There is some evidence that women are more likely to respond positively if the interventions include face-to-face interaction either with peers or professionals, if their partners are involved, and if the women are offered childcare support. We’ve been asking women who have had gestational diabetes about what they think would be the best kinds of interventions to try out.

We probably also need to remind women of the increased risk of type 2 diabetes more regularly once the early-motherhood period has passed. It is therefore time to think about raising the profile of gestational diabetes across the whole population. It offers a big opportunity to gain ground in the fight against diabetes. World diabetes rates are set to rise 50% to nearly 600m by 2035 – and the disease has been described as a global pandemic. So long as gestational diabetes is out of sight and out of mind except during pregnancy, we won’t be able to use it to make people aware of the importance of a healthy lifestyle and to prevent more cases of type 2. Instead, it offers a big opportunity to gain ground in the fight against diabetes.

Josie receives funding from the Medical Research Council and the Chief Scientist Office

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

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There is a longstanding debate in the research community about the importance of fitness versus fatness in health. Are exercise and improving fitness more important than eating well and maintaining a healthy weight?

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Release : January 19, 2017
Country : United States of America.
Production Company : Universal Pictures, Blumhouse Productions, Blinding Edge Pictures.
Language : English.
Runtime : 117 min.
Genre : Horror, Thriller.

‘Split’ is a movie genre Horror, was released in January 19, 2017. M. Night Shyamalan was directed this movie and starring by James McAvoy. This movie tell story about Though Kevin has evidenced 23 personalities to his trusted psychiatrist, Dr. Fletcher, there remains one still submerged who is set to materialize and dominate all the others. Compelled to abduct three teenage girls led by the willful, observant Casey, Kevin reaches a war for survival among all of those contained within him—as well as everyone around him—as the walls between his compartments shatter apart.

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A decade ago, any mention of a choir would probably have brought Sunday morning hymns to mind. But there’s been a revolution in attitudes towards joining the local choir.

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Explainer: can you cure bad posture?

Posture is not a rigid concept. It represents something more fluid with considerable range for change. Despite this, it is often oversimplified, rightly or wrongly, as being “good” or “bad”.

Practice makes perfect posture? www.shutterstock.om

Posture is not a rigid concept. It represents something more fluid with considerable range for change. Despite this, it is often oversimplified, rightly or wrongly, as being “good” or “bad”.film Blair Witch trailer

Your posture is affected by many aspects of your daily life, including physical and psychological factors. The former can include how you sit and for how long, how active you are, and if you are repeatably placing strain on your body. From a psychological perspective, how well you are dealing with stress, how balanced your work, social and family life is, and your overall level of self-esteem will all contribute to your posture.

It is widely accepted that psychological factors can drive and amplify how we feel about our pain. Given that poor sustained posture can lead to physical pain, we can’t ignore it but when addressing postural issues we also need to consider the role of the mind.

The physiological

We will all remember being told by our parents, school teachers and many others not to slouch and to sit up straight. Instinctively, we knew there was some truth to this. Colleagues who work in the field of biomechanics will hold this mantra close to their hearts, recognising that if we adopt poor posture – chin poked forward, holding our shoulders in a rounded position and being slouched in chair – for sustained periods, the overall effect will be that areas like our neck, shoulder region and backs will object and usually alert us by producing pain. This pain comes from joint and soft tissue structures such as muscles and ligaments. They become overloaded and exposed to abnormal forces when they are held in positions they weren’t designed for.

There is no “perfect” posture, mainly due to the myriad variables associated with how we sit and stand, but generally speaking, people are not born with certain posture types. Over time, we develop a posture, depending on our lifestyle. However, some are more common than others. Office workers, for example, may be more susceptible to a “sway back posture” due to bad sitting habits. Over time, these physical factors can affect our overall posture and if left unchecked can contribute to neck and back pain.

The psychological

This of course is very much a physiological interpretation but equally important and common in people who complain of problems is how a person responds to psychological factors. “Embodied emotional theory” looks at how emotional cues are expressed by the body. These can happen without someone knowing or acknowledging underlying psychological issues. Examples might be when someone unknowingly holds themselves with the shoulders raised or hunched with the chin poking forwards when stressed, or a particularly tall person who stoops in order to make themselves the same as those around them, because they dislike being tall.

It is also likely to be accompanied by something called the “self-validation theory”. This is when the postures we adopt actually affect how we feel emotionally, so standing tall with shoulders back is a confident posture and subsequently can make us feel and appear more confident. Both theories allow us to communicate how we are feeling to others in our body language, whether this is conscious or subconscious.

Standing tall allows the vertebrae to unravel and release pressure.
www.shutterstock.com

Curing posture

So can you cure bad posture? There are many sources that give advice with regard to posture, but we must be mindful as to whether it is the immediate symptoms we seek to cure (back pain, for example) or an underlying reason.

My time in clinical practice has shown me that most people want the immediate symptom of pain managed and often will not even realise there is an underlying cause. This lack of insight into what might be driving their posture change often makes it difficult to advise on. Even if they are aware of other factors, people often still struggle to discuss the emotional aspects of their condition.

Of course it would be ideal to address both, but the realist in me knows that the way we treat our bodies is often far from ideal. I would therefore suggest that perhaps rather than thinking about cure, it is better to create awareness and some degree of work hardening.

If someone is subconsciously adopting a posture, making them aware of it means they can take ownership of it and learn to regularly move out of that posture to prevent excessive strain. If someone is required to adopt a new posture due to a new skill or job where pain or discomfort is a feature, maintaining awareness and repeatedly correcting it can ease discomfort.

It’s important to also understand that posture is a continuum that is part of the ageing process. The theory is that when we are younger we can absorb more stress and force on our joints and tissues. For most of us the reality is that as we age we don’t tolerate this as well because of other age-related changes happening to our tissues and consequently take longer to recover.

In all instances I would always recommend educating yourself on how to improve troublesome posture. Simple changes to your daily life, including positioning, lifting technique, exercise tolerance, stress management and work-life balance are all starting points.

It is also about considering both the physiological and psychological stressors. Failure to do this will inevitably lead to repeated episodes, a deepening perception of pain and a delayed recovery. And if particularly troublesome, it may be necessary to seek appropriate advice from a qualified healthcare professional.

Jonathan Flynn does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

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Producer : Basil Iwanyk.
Release : February 8, 2017
Country : United States of America.
Production Company : Thunder Road Pictures, LionsGate, 87Eleven.
Language : English, Italiano.
Runtime : 122
Genre : Thriller, Action, Crime.

Movie ‘John Wick: Chapter 2’ was released in February 8, 2017 in genre Thriller. Chad Stahelski was directed this movie and starring by Keanu Reeves. This movie tell story about John Wick is forced out of retirement by a former associate looking to seize control of a shadowy international assassins’ guild. Bound by a blood oath to aid him, Wick travels to Rome and does battle against some of the world’s most dangerous killers.

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Quality: HD
Title : Jarhead 3: The Siege
Release : 2016-01-20.
Language : English.
Runtime : 95 min.
Genre : Action, Drama, War.
Stars : Charlie Weber, Scott Adkins, Tom Ainsley, Erik Valdez, Dante Basco, Sasha Jackson.download full film Berlin Syndrome

Corporal Evan Albright (Charlie Weber) joined the elite Marine Corps Security Guards to save the world and see some action-not necessarily in that order. But his first assignment, protecting a U. S. Embassy in a seemingly safe Middle Eastern capitol, relegates his unit to wrangling “gate groupies” protesting outside the compound and honing their marksmanship by playing video games. So Albright and his team are caught off guard when well-armed and well-trained militants launch a surprise attack aimed at killing an informant in the embassy. Heavily out-gunned, they will have to muster all the courage and fire power they can as their once routine assignment spirals into all-out war.

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Living longer, sicker lives? Make lifestyle changes to remain healthier in old age

Life expectancy across the world is growing, but the number of those extra years in which we’re healthy is not rising at the same rate.

Fighting fit. Exercise by Shutterstock

Life expectancy across the world is growing, but the number of those extra years in which we’re healthy is not rising at the same rate. This adds to the demographic time-bomb of a greater number of older people suffering from ill-health. Yet, according to the Global Burden of Disease study published in the Lancet, of the top ten health risks most are lifestyle-related and within our power to change.

Between 1990 and 2013, life expectancy in the UK increased by 6.2 years for men to 79.1 years, and by 4.4 years for women to 82.8 years. However, the amount of this gain expected to be lived in good health increased by only 4.7 years for men and 3.3 years for women.

While a similar improving trend was observed in most countries across the globe, in dozens of countries including Belarus, Belize, Gabon, Guyana, Paraguay, Syria and all of southern Sub-Saharan Africa, healthy life expectancy was lower in 2013 than in 1990. Interestingly, this is also the first time that improvements to healthy life expectancy in the developing world (5.4 years for men and 6.4 years for women) are greater than those in the developed world (3.9 years for men and 2.8 years for women).

Chronic disease and disability

A surprising fact is that, nowadays, fewer than 4% of people are completely free of any health problem, with more people living with chronic and under-reported illnesses. The number of years lived with disability have increased in almost every country, attributable to the growth of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer, back pain, mental health disorders, dementia, road injuries, HIV/AIDS and malaria. This has also increased the demand for care.

A comparison of years of life lost between regions of the UK, the EU15 group of countries, plus Australia, Canada, Norway and the US, shows that England’s worst affected region – the north-west (with north-east England close behind) – is similar to Scotland, Northern Ireland and the US. The East Midlands is the UK average, equivalent to France, Canada and Germany, while better-off regions such as the south-west, south-east and London are closer to Spain, Australia and Norway.

Rates of years of life lost (YLLs) for both sexes combined in the nine English regions, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, the EU15 countries, Australia, Canada, Norway and the US (2013).
Newton et alThe Lancet, CC BY

Factors within our control

We could live longer and healthier if we tackled the main health risks that affect us. Globally, the leading ten risks are smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, alcohol use, high cholesterol, kidney disease, low physical activity, diets low in fruits and vegetables and drug use. These are drawn from 79 biological, behavioural, environmental and occupational factors.

The list is similar in the UK, with smoking, high blood pressure, obesity at the top and low physical activity also ranking highly, comparable to Australasia, Ireland and the US. Among developed countries there is some variation: alcohol use is a bigger problem in Belgium, Denmark, Finland and South Korea, while smoking is less of a problem in Finland, Israel and Singapore, for example.

The same is true within the UK, where Wales scored worse in physical activity but better in blood pressure, or where drug use was a greater problem in the south-west, south-east and the east of England than elsewhere. As the chart below shows, of metabolic (biological), environmental, or behavioural (lifestyle) factors affecting health, it is lifestyle factors that carry the most weight.

Proportion of disability-adjusted life years lost in 2013 attributable to behavioural, environmental and metabolic risks and where they overlap (marked by ∩).
GBD 2013 Risk Factors Collaborators/The Lancet, CC BY

The future

We are now entering an era when fighting for funding to tackle a single disease in isolation is no longer effective. Health problems tend to cluster from childhood to adulthood and then around the end of life. They also share both biological and environmental risks.trailer film The Discovery

The main risk factors leading to chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, smoking and heavy alcohol consumption might result from family problems, social inequality or poverty, beliefs or customs of particular subcultures, selfish business models, bullying or violence, poor education (awareness), depressive mood and even the changeable weather.

Current prevention and interventions programmes and social and health policies aimed at reducing the leading risks might have limited effects. Instead, we should focus on the context and mechanism of actions of these risks. We, therefore, need to restructure human society in each country, with systematic examination and improvements in every aspect of human life including politics, the occupational (for example, more healthcare and less business; shorter working hours with lower unemployment rates), the built environment (including housing and neighbourhoods renewal, the transport system, etc), consistent culture, education and parenting, hobbies and so on. This is the grand challenge that faces us in the next decade.

Ivy Shiue (Scthiue) does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above.

Read the Original Article at TheConservation.com

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Hacksaw Ridge (2016) HD

Director : Mel Gibson.
Producer : Terry Benedict, Paul Currie, Bruce Davey, William D. Johnson, Bill Mechanic, Brian Oliver, David Permut.
Release : October 7, 2016
Country : Australia, United States of America.
Production Company : Icon Productions, Permut Presentations, Pandemonium, Cross Creek Pictures, Vendian Entertainment, Demarest Media.
Language : 日本語, English.
Runtime : 140 min.
Genre : Drama, History, War.

Movie ‘Hacksaw Ridge’ was released in October 7, 2016 in genre Drama. Mel Gibson was directed this movie and starring by Andrew Garfield. This movie tell story about WWII American Army Medic Desmond T. Doss, who served during the Battle of Okinawa, refuses to kill people and becomes the first Conscientious Objector in American history to win the Congressional Medal of Honor.

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